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54 terms

Developmental Pscyh: Ch 6

STUDY
PLAY
schemes
in Piaget's theory, actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
assimilation
Piagetian concept of the incorporation of new information into existing schemes
accommodation
Piagetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences
organization
Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher-order system, a more smoothly functioning cognitive system
disequilibrium
cognitive conflict that occurs when a child is trying to understand the world
equilibration
a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next
sensorimotor stage
the first of Piaget's stgaes, which lasts from birth to about 2 years of age; infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with motoric actions
simple reflexes
Piaget's first sensorimotor substage, which corresponds to the first month after birth
simple reflexes
sensorimotor substage in which sensation and action are coordinated primarily through reflexive behaviors
first habits and primary circular reactions
Piaget's second sensorimotor substage, which develops between 1 and 4 months of age
first habits and primary circular reactions
sensorimotor substage in which the infant coordinates sensation and two types of schemes: habits and primary circular reactions
habit
scheme based on a reflex that has become completely separated from eliciting stimulus
circular reaction
repetitive action
primary circular reaction
scheme based on the attempt to reproduce an event that initially occurred by chance
secondary circular reactions
Piaget's third sensorimotor substage, which develops between 4 and 8 months
secondary circular reactions
sensorimotor substage in which the infant becomes more object-oriented, moving beyond preoccupation with the self
coordination of secondary circular reactions
Piaget's fourth sensorimotor substage, which develops between 8 and 12 months of age
coordination of secondary circular reactions
actions become more outwardly directed, and infants coordinate schemes and act with intentionality
tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity
Piaget's fifth sensorimotor stage, which develops between 12 and 18 months of age
tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity
Piaget's sensorimotor substage in which infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to objects
internalization of schemes
Piaget's sixth sensorimotor substage, which develops between 18 and 24 months
internalization of schemes
Piaget's sensorimotor substage in which the infant develops the ability to use primitive symbols
object permanence
understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched
A-not-B error
occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place A rather than the new hiding place B as they progress into substage 4 in Piaget's sensorimotor stage
core knowledge approach
view that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems
attention
focusing of mental resources on select information
joint attention
occurs when individuals focus on the same object or event, and an ability to track another's behavior is present; one individual directs another's attention, and reciprocal interaction is present
memory
central feature of cognitive development, involving the retention of information over time
encoding
process by which information gets into memory
implicit memory
memory without conscious recollection; involves skills and routine procedures that are automatically performed
explicit memory
conscious memory of facts and experiences
deferred imitation
imitation that occurs after a delay of hours or days
categories
group objects, events, and characteristics on the basis of common properties
concepts
ideas about what categories represent
developmental quotient
an overall score that combines subscores in motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gesell assessment of infants
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
scales developed by Nancy Bayley that are widely used in the assessment of infant development; the current version has five components (cognitive scale, language scale, motor scale, socio-emotional scale, and an adaptive scale)
language
a form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols
infinite generativity
ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
phonology
sound system of the language, including the sounds that are used and how they may be combined
morphology
units of meaning involved in word formation
syntax
the ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
semantics
the meaning of words and sentences
pragmatics
the appropriate use of language in different contexts
overextension
tendency to apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the word's meaning
underextension
tendency to apply a word too narrowly; it occurs when children fail to use a word to name a relevant event or object
telegraphic speech
the use of content words without grammatical markers such as articles, auxiliary verbs, and other connectives
Broca's area
an area in the brain's left frontal lobe involved in speech formation
Wernicke's area
an area of the brain's left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehension
aphasia
loss or impairment of language processing cause by brain damage in Broca's area or Wernicke's area
language acquisition device
Chomsky's term that describes a biological endowment that enables the child to detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics
child-directed speech
language spoken in a higher pitch that normal with simple words and sentences
recasting
rephrasing something that the child has said, perhaps turning it into a question or restating the child's immature utterance in the form of a fully grammatical structure
expanding
restating what a child has said in a linguistically sophisticated form
labeling
identifying the names of objects