Chapter 1-11 Test
Pearsons ap world book multiple choice questions
Terms in this set (156)
The human species was characterized in the Paleolithic Age by all of the following EXCEPT
the development of agricultural-based economies.
The Mesolithic, or Middle Stone, Age spanned from
The emergence of agriculture, or the Neolithic Revolution, caused all of the following EXCEPT
the disappearance of hunter-gatherer communities.
The Neolithic Revolution first occurred in
the Middle East
Metal tools were preferred over wood and stone tools for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
they were easier for ordinary people to make in mass at home
Which of the following does not define a civilization?
equality between social classes
The Tigris-Euphrates civilization, Sumeria, produced the first
Egyptian civilization differed from Mesopotamian civilizations by stressing
more centralzed and durable empires
Which river-valley civilization was characterized by isolation?
As the most influential of the smaller Middle Eastern regional cultures, the Jews were characterized most by
One characteristic that differentiated classical civilizations from the earlier river-valley societies was
they created larger political structures, capable of controlling more territory.
A major factor in China's development of the first elaborate classical societies was
its ability to stay isolated and avoid outside invasions
The Chinese view of nature stressed
harmony and balance
Classical Chinese civilization was ruled by all of these EXCEPT
the Shang dynasty
A major feature of the classical Chinese economy was
a high level of technology
The Qin and Han dynasties were both characterized by
a powerful, centralized governence
the Qin dynasty is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
an increase in the economic status of the peasnt communities
China's classical period gave rise to all of the following intellectual traditions EXCEPT
Besides the "mean people," which of the following groups were considered to have the least status in classical China?
All of the following constituted a function of the state in Han China EXCEPT
detachment from the lives of the Chinese masses
All of the following defined the formative period, or Vedic and Epic ages, of Indian civilization EXCEPT
consistently high levels of agricultural output.
The first ruler of the Maurya Dynasty was
The Maurya Dynasty differed from the Gupta Dynasty in that
it ruled a larger territory
Classical India's political climate was characterized most by
an array of regional political cultures
The Indian caste system functioned as a political institution by
enforcing rules abut social behavior
Hinduism was defined by all of the following EXCEPT
an attack on other religions
Buddhism differed from Hinduism by not believing
in the caste system
Indian trading networks expanded to include all of the following EXCEPT
Which of the following does NOT describe important features of Indian art?
opposition to the use of animal figures
Compared to China, India
had more contact with other societies and civilizations.
If the Greek genius was in politics, the Roman genius was
Greek politics was noted for its formation of
the roman empire
tolerated local politicians and religious diversity.
The Senate of republican Rome particularly represented
The most characteristic political form in the classical Mediterranean world was
Classical Mediterranean society differed from classical China in all of the following ways EXCEPT
the rejection of religious belief
This Greek philosopher suggested that human reason could approach an understanding of the perfect formsthe absolutely True, Good, and Beautifulthat he believed underlay nature.
Greek society, compared to Rome's, registered special advances in
Roman slaves were used for all of the following EXCEPT
Between 550 and 400 B.C.E., classical civilizations produced all of the following seminal thinkers EXCEPT
Civilization pushed forward entirely independent of the three great classical civilizations in
The decline of the three classical civilizations between 200 and 600 C.E. were all characterized by
One important early symptom of Rome's decline was
the drop in population
The first kingdoms in Africa below the Sahara showed the influence of
Egypt and Hellenism
The end of the Gupta Empire differed from the decline of Rome in that it did NOT involve
the introduction of a new religion
Despite major differences, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all show interest in
life after death
Compared to Hinduism, Christianity is more likely to
disapprove of other religious beliefs
The eastern portion of the Roman Empire experienced less decline than the west for all the following reasons EXCEPT
the east resisted the spread of Christianity.
All of the following constitute distinctive features of late-Roman Christianity EXCEPT
a weak hierarchy of church officials
Arab camel nomads
What was the basic social group of the bedouin people?
kin-related clan groups
leaders of the Beduin clans
What clan was responsible for the foundation of Mecca?
The religious shrine that was the focus of an annual truce in pre-Islamic Mecca was the
Who ruled Medina prior to Muhammad's flight there?
several Jewish and bedouin clans
Prior to Muhammad's revelations, the religion of the bedouin was
a mixture of animism and polytheism.
What was the date of Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina?
Which of the following statements concerning Muhammad's flight to Medina is not correct?
Muhammad fled from Mecca with nearly one quarter of the city's population.
The Islamic umma was
the concept of community of the faithful that transcended clan boundaries.
The religious practices that are incumbent on all Muslims are referred to as the
the "five pillars" of faith
The responsibility of all Muslims to make a pilgrimage to Mecca is called the
The Ridda Wars were fought
to suppress rival prophets and to restore the unity of Islam.
Which of the following statements concerning the resistance of the Byzantine Empire to Islamic attacks is most accurate?
The Byzantine Empire was more resilient than the Sasanian Empire, but still suffered the loss of Egypt, Syria, and Palestine to the Arabs.
The theological and political faction that supported the Umayyad concept of succession within Islam were the
What was the nature of citizenship within the Umayyad Empire?
Only Muslim Arabs were first-class citizens of this great empire.
Unlike the Umayyad Empire, the Abbasid Empire
admitted the mawali as full members of the Islamic community.
During the Abbasid period, slavery
was typical of unskilled occupations in the countryside and the cities.
What was the rule of succession to the office of caliph during the Abbasid dynasty?
there was no accepted rule of succession
How did the Shi'i react to the later Abbasid dynasty?
Shi'i revolts and assassination attempts plagued the dynasty.
What was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-Rashid?
Candidates for the throne recognized the need to build up personal armies, often of slave soldiers.
Which of the following was not a cause of the collapse of the agricultural economy during the Abbasid Caliphate?
decline of the cities leading to falling demand for food supplies
What did the Abbasid creation of the harem imply?
the increasing seclusion of women from public life
What was the religious affiliation of the Seljuks?
In what way was the conquest of Baghdad by the Seljuk Turks beneficial to Islam?
The Turks restored the ability of the empire to meet the challenges of Fatimid Egypt and the Byzantine Empire.
Who was Saladin?
the commander responsible for the reconquest of the Crusader territories
Which of the following statements concerning the Crusades is most accurate?
The Crusaders were successful only because of the political fragmentation of Islam and the element of surprise.
What was the nature of cultural exchange during the Crusades?
The Crusaders adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among other things.
What was the trend of urbanization during much of the Abbasid era?
Despite political disintegration and a decline in the agricultural economy, towns continued to grow rapidly.
In what language was the Shah-Nama written?
Which of the following was a literary figure during the Abbasid era?
What was the movement within Islam that emphasized mysticism and charismatic worship?
Who were the religious scholars within Islam that stressed a more conservative interpretation of the law and religious texts?
How did Islam and Hinduism differ?
Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system.
What was the first region of India conquered by the Muslims in 711?
Islam did not expand in Southeastern Asia until after the fall of what largely Buddhist trading empire?
Between 800 and 1500, as the frequency and intensity of contact with the outside world increased, what was the most significant impact on sub-Saharan Africa?
the arrival of Islam
Which of the following statements concerning the universality of religion in Africa is most accurate?
There was no universal religion in Africa, but both Christianity and Islam found adherents.
Stateless societies in Africa were
organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority.
What was the function of secret societies in African culture?
Because their membership cut across lineage divisions, they acted to maintain stability within the community and diminish clan feuds.
The grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara that served as a point of exchange between the forests of the south and North Africa was called the
What kingdom arose in the Sudan following the decline of Ghana in 1076?
What was the geographical location of the empire of Mali?
between the Niger and Senegal Rivers
Which of the following monarchs was referred to as Mali's "Lion Prince?"
African traders associated with the Mali Empire
Which of the following was one of the major "port" cities of the Mali Empire?
Specialists who mastered the oral traditions of the Malinke and by knowing the past were considered excellent advisors to the kings were called
Sunni Ali was responsible for the creation of what African Empire?
What accounted for the downfall of Songhay?
invasion by a Moroccan Muslim army equipped with firearms
How did contact with the Muslim world affect the African slave trade?
With the Muslim conquests of North Africa and commercial penetration to the south, slavery became a more widely diffused phenomenon and the slave trade developed rapidly.
Zenj was the Arabic term for
the East African coast.
What was typical of the African societies not affected by either Islam or Christianity?
lack of systems of writing
Which of the following regions was typified by city-state organization?
The significance of the Byzantine Empire included all of the following except
the empire's conquest of the Ottoman Empire and its inclusion of all of the Middle East.
Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the cultural influence of the Byzantine Empire?
Ultimately, the empire's most important stepchild was Russia.
The capital of the Byzantine Empire and its commercial center was located at
The Byzantine Empire began
in the 4th century C.E., with the founding of Constantinople.
The great church built by Justinian was
the Hagia Sophia.
From the reign of Justinian, the official language of the eastern empire was
Which of the following represents one of Justinian's positive accomplishments?
systematizing of the Roman legal code
the builder responsible for the Hagia Sophia.
the Byzantine general responsible for much of the military success during Justinian's reign.
Which of the following was a result of Justinian's wars of reconquest?
weakening of the empire's defenses on its eastern frontiers with the Persians
Which of the following was a result of the conflict between the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Muslims?
The position of the small farmers in the empire was weakened as a result of heavy taxation, resulting in greater aristocratic estates.
What people provided the most serious challenge to Byzantine authority in the Balkan peninsula?
The military force of the Byzantine Empire
was recruited from peasants of the empire in return for grants of heritable land.
Which of the following statements concerning urbanization in the Byzantine Empire is not accurate?
Like China, the Byzantine Empire was heavily urbanized with many cities numbering more than 100,000.
Images of religious objects venerated as part of the religious practices of the Orthodox Church were called
Cyril and Methodius were responsible for what accomplishment?
the creation of a written script for the Slavic language
Who was Rurik?
the legendary Scandinavian who became the first king of Kievan Rus'
When did Constantinople fall to the Turks?
How did the spread of Christianity affect the polytheistic religions already extant in northern Europe?
Conversion produced a religious amalgam of Christianity and beliefs in magic and supernatural spirits.
Following the fall of Rome, where was the center of the postclassical West?
in France, the Low Countries, and Germany.
Manorialism was the system that
described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers.
One of the few technological innovations of the Middle Ages was a plow that permitted deeper cultivation of the soil called the
Which of the following statements concerning the manorial system is not true?
It was technologically sophisticated.
Clovis was the Frankish king responsible for the
conversion of his people to Christianity.
What monk was responsible for the creation of a set of rules for Western monasteries in the sixth century?
Benedict of Nursia
What Frankish monarch was able to establish a substantial empire in 800?
What political unit attempted to retain the title of emperor following the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire by the tenth century?
Holy Roman Empire
Where was the greatest concentration of urbanization after the tenth century?
Italy and the Low Countries
Which of the following was a result of the Crusades?
The Crusades helped to open the West to new cultural and economic influences from the Middle East.
The practice of state appointment of bishops led to the
How did the intellectual endeavors of medieval scholars differ before and after 1000?
Before 1000 scholars were limited to copying ancient texts, but after 1000 a greater synthesis of rationalism and theology was achieved.
Thomas Aquinas was the medieval scholar who
created the greatest synthesis of classical rational philosophy and Christian theology.
Which of the following developments was not a result of the improved economy of the High Middle Ages?
Conflicts between peasants and landlords became rare, if they did not disappear completely.
What institutions were responsible for the regulation of apprenticeship, guarantee of good workmanship, and limitation of admission to various occupations?
Which of the following was not true of women's experience in the Middle Ages?
Women led religious services.
During the postclassical period, societies in the Americas
remained entirely separate from those of the Old World.
The Toltecs established their capital in central Mexico around
What civilization did the Toltecs succeed in central Mexico?
After the sack of Tula, the center of population and political power in Mexico shifted to
the valley of Mexico and the shores of a chain of lakes in that basin.
What civilization did the Aztecs succeed in central Mexico?
What form of government was the basis for the imperial structure of the Aztecs during their first settlement in the valley of Mexico?
What was the capital of the Aztec empire?
In 1434, the Aztecs
formed a triple alliance with two other cities.
What was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system?
From a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a stratified society.
Which of the following was not a deity worshipped by the Aztecs?
What was the significance of the god Huitzilopochtli?
He was the patron god of the Aztecs most closely associated with the cult of human sacrifice.
Chinampas were the
"floating islands" utilized for intensive agricultural production.
What was the nature of the Aztec administration of subject territories?
Conquered territories were often left relatively unchanged under their old rulers as long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid tribute.
Which of the following views can be associated with the concept of "Inca socialism"?
The Inca empire was a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need.
Following the decline of the horizon states of Tihuanaco and Huari,
a number of large states such as Chimor continued to be important.
Pachacuti was the
ruler associated with the first creation of the Inca empire in 1438.
What was the Inca practice of split inheritance?
All political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead ruler's mummy.
Which of the following practices was common to the Aztec and the Inca empires?
a tribute system
Which of the following statements concerning the population of the Americas is most true?
The population of the Americas was probably close to contemporary Europe's excluding Russia.
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