32 terms

UNIT 3 STABILITY & CHANGE ON EARTH TEST

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Terms in this set (...)

climate
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time (20 + years)
weather
The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
solar radiation
Emission of energy from the sun in the form of shortwave electromagnetic waves.
Greenhouse Effect
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
Global Climate
changes in the earth's climate mostly as a result of changes in temperature and precipitation.
Anomaly
Deviation from what is normal
anthropogenic climate change
climate change which is human caused, either directly or indirectly
fossil fuels
Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals.
sunspots
dark spots on sun associated with increase in solar storms
Milankovitch cycle
Precession, eccentricity, and obliquity
Precession is the wobble in Earth's axis, obliquity is the variation in Earth's tilt, and eccentricity is the change in the shape of Earth's orbit (more elliptical vs more round)
precession
The wobble of earth
drought
A long period of dry weather
heat wave
A prolonged period of extensively hot weather.
peer review
scientific research is evaluated by experts in same field
mitigation (related to climate change)
making changes that reduce greenhouse gas emissions
adaptation (related to climate change)
altering human behavior to adapt to the changing climate
clean energy
Energy sources that release very small amounts of greenhouse gases
renewable energy
Is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished).
biofuels
fuels made from crops that can replace gasoline in vehicles
fuel efficiency
cars ability to go farther on the same amount of gasoline
hybrid vehicle
combines gasoline and electricity to power and move the car (solar, hydrogen fuel cells)
What happens to solar radiation that reaches Earth's atmosphere? (3)
Some is absorbed and converted to heat, Some of that heat radiates back into space, and Some of that heat is trapped in the atmosphere,
What happens to shortwave radiation absorbed by earth? (4)
Reflected at the top of the atmosphere, Reflected, absorbed or scattered by clouds, water vapour, dust O3 or other gases in the atmosphere, Transmitted to the surface and then either absorbed or reflected back upward into the atmosphere (albedo)
What are major GREENHOUSE GASES?
water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)
What are top two ways people emit greenhouse gases?
burning fossil fuels for electricity and transportation
Rank greenhouse gases in order for greatest to least influence on climate change (anthropogenic influences).
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs
Positive feedback mechanism of global climate change
Process that increases global climate change
Albedo
Ability of a surface to reflect sunlight
Infrared radiation
Electromagnetic long wave in the form of heat
Ice cores
long tube of ice drilled out of a glacier that tell us about the atmosphere and climate of the past
Mitigation
making changes that reduce
greenhouse gas emissions.
Adaptation
altering human behavior to adapt to the changing climate that is inevitable.

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