FAA 107

1 / 148
Above Ground Level (AGL)
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (148)
Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS).Weather reporting system that consists of various sensors, a processor, a computer-generated voice subsystem, and a transmitter to broadcast weather data on a minute-by-minute basis.Aviation Area Forecast (FA)Encompasses the weather conditions over a large regional area. Beneficial in verifying airport conditions at airports that do not have terminal aerodrome forecasts.Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR).Observation of current surface weather reported in a standard international format. Issued hourly unless significant weather changes have occurred.B4UFly AppSmartphone app from the Federal Aviation Association (FAA) that helps unmanned aircraft operators determine whether there are any restrictions or requirements in effect at the location where they want to fly.Center of Gravity (CG).The point at which your aircraft would perfectly balance if it were suspended at that point.Certificate of Waiver (CoW).Allows a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) operation to deviate from certain provisions of Part 107 as long as the FAA finds that the proposed operation can be safely conducted under the terms of that Certificate of Waiver.Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (COA)Applies only to public operators (government entities and organizations). Permits nationwide flights in Class G airspace at or below 400 feet, self-certification of the Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) pilot, and the option to obtain emergency COAs (e-COAs) under special circumstances.Chart Supplement U.S. (formerly Airport/Facility Directory).Provides the most comprehensive information on a given airport. Contains information on airports, heliports, and seaplane bases that are open to the public. Published across seven books, and the information in each of these books is updated every couple of months.Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF)Frequency designated for the purpose of carrying out airport advisory practices while operating to or from an airport without an operating control tower.Control Station (CS)An interface used by the remote pilot in command or the person manipulating the controls to control the flight path of the Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS). (In basic terms, this is your remote control.)Corrective LensesSpectacles or contact lenses.Crew Resource Management (CRM).Art and science of managing all the resources that are available to the Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) prior and during flight, including resources both on board the aircraft and from outside sources.Error Chain.When a series of judgmental errors leads to a human factors-related accidentFAA Airman Knowledge Testing Supplement for Sport Pilot, Recreational Pilot, and Private Pilot (FAA-CT-8080-2G).Book of figures and charts that is issued during the FAA Aeronautical Knowledge Test at the computer testing centers and referenced in certain test questions.FAA Regional Operations Center (ROC).Network of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Command Control Communication Centers.Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).National aviation authority of the United States, with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.Flight Services Station (FSS)Air traffic facility that provides information and services to aircraft pilots before, during, and after flights. Unlike Air Traffic Control (ATC), FSS is not responsible for giving instructions or clearances or providing separation, but they do relay ATC clearances.Flight Standards District Office (FSDO)Locally affiliated field office of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).Instrument Flight Rules (IFR).When operation of an aircraft under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) is not safe or legal because the visual cues outside the aircraft are obscured by weather or darkness, instrument flight rules must be used instead.Mean Sea Level (MSL).True altitude, or the average height above standard sea level where the atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude. Related term: Above Ground Level (AGL)Model Aircraft.An Unmanned Aircraft (UA) that is capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere; flown within visual line-of-sight (VLOS) of the person operating the aircraft; and flown for hobby or recreational purposes.MULTICOM.Frequency allocation used as a Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) by aircraft near airports where no air traffic control is available. In the United States, the frequency is 122.9 MHz. At uncontrolled airports without a UNICOM, pilots are to self-announce on the MULTICOM frequency.National Airspace System (NAS)Reaches from the surface to 60,000 feet within the continental United States and its territories.Notice to Airmen (NOTAM).Issued when there's aeronautical information that could affect a pilot's decision to make a flight. It includes such information as airport or aerodrome primary runway closures, taxiways, ramps, obstructions, communications, airspace, and changes in the status of navigational aids, to name a few. Time-critical and either of a temporary nature or not sufficiently known in advance to permit publication on aeronautical charts or in other operational publications.Person Manipulating the ControlsA person other than the Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) who is controlling the flight of an Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) under the supervision of the remote PIC.Pilot Report (PIREP).Report of actual weather conditions that the pilot collects mid-flight.Precipitation Static (P-static)Form of radio interference caused by rain, snow, or dust particles hitting the antenna and inducing a small radio-frequency voltage into it.Radio Frequencies (RF)Any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies in the range from around 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which include those frequencies used for communications or radar signals.Radar Summary Chart.Graphically-depicted collection of radar weather reports. Displays areas of precipitation and information regarding the characteristics of the precipitation.Remote Pilot CertificateLicense that allows a person who passed the Aeronautical Knowledge Exam to serve as the Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) for a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS).Remote Pilot in Command (Remote PIC or Remote Pilot)A person who holds a Remote Pilot Certificate with a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) rating and has the final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of an sUAS operation conducted under Part 107.Sectional ChartAeronautical chart showing topographical features that are important to aviators, such as terrain elevations, ground features identifiable from altitude and ground features useful to pilots. Also shows information on airspace classes, ground-based navigation aids, radio frequencies, longitude and latitude, navigation waypoints, and navigation routes.Security Identification Display Areas (SIDA)Limited access areas within airports that require a person to have a badgeSignificant Weather Prognostic Charts.Best used by a pilot for determining areas to avoid, like freezing levels and turbulence.Small Unmanned Aircraft (Small UA).A Unmanned Aircraft (UA) weighing less than 55 pounds, including everything that is onboard or otherwise attached to the aircraft, and can be flown without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS).A small Unmanned Aircraft (UA) and its associated elements, including communication links and the components that control the small UA, that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small UA in the National Airspace System (NAS). To reiterate, the difference between the Small Unmanned Aircraft and the Small Unmanned Aircraft System is simply that the system is the aircraft PLUS all the other equipment and components, such as the remote control / transmitterStatute Miles (SM)Legal or formal name for a mile, or 5280 feet.Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET)Weather advisory that contains information about significant weather events like thunderstorms and severe turbulence.Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR)Restriction on an area of airspace due to the movement of government VIPs, special events, natural disasters, or other unusual events.Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF). Weather report established for the five statute mile radius around an airport and usually provided for larger airports. Valid for up to a 30-hour time period and updated four times a day.Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 107 (Part 107)Lays out the operating and certification requirements to allow Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) to operate for non-hobby and non-recreational purposes.Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Airman Certification StandardsFederal Aviation Administration (FAA) document that communicates the aeronautical knowledge standards for a Remote Pilot Certificate with an sUAS rating. The FAA views the ACS as the foundation to an integrated and systematic approach to airman certification.Unmanned Aircraft (UA)An aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft. The difference between an Unmanned Aircraft and a Small Unmanned Aircraft is that a Small Unmanned Aircraft weighs less than 55 poundsVisibility.Greatest horizontal distance at which prominent objects can be viewed with the naked eye.Visual Flight Rules (VFR).Set of regulations under which a pilot operates an aircraft in weather conditions generally clear enough to allow the pilot to see where the aircraft is going.Visual Line-of-Sight (VLOS).Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) and person manipulating the controls must be able to see the small UA at all times during flight, unless you have a waiver that permits otherwise. Defined as within 1,500 feet of the operator and no more than 400 feet above ground. VLOS must be accomplished and maintained by unaided vision, although eyeglasses and contact lenses are allowed.Visual Observer (VO).A person acting as a flightcrew member who assists the Small Unmanned Aircraft (UA) Remote Pilot in Command (PIC) and/or the person manipulating the controls to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.Winds and Temperatures Aloft (FB).Computer-prepared forecast for specific locations in the contiguous U.S.Absolute Altitutethe height above ground level (AGL)True Altitudethe height above mean sea level (MSL)Density Altitudehow we measure the density of airIndicated Altitudethe height your altimeter shows you (when you're at sea level under standard conditions, indicated altitude is the same as true altitude)Higher Density Altitude Occurs at:Higher elevations Lower atmospheric pressures Higher temperatures Higher humidityLower Density Altitude Occurs at:Lower elevations Higher atmospheric pressures Lower temperatures Lower humidityConvective Currentscause that bumpy, turbulent air sometimes experienced when flying at lower altitudes during warmer weather. On a low-altitude flight over different types of surfaces, updrafts are likely to occur over areas like pavement or sand, and downdrafts often occur over water or expansive areas of vegetation like a group of trees.Wind ShearWind shear is a sudden, drastic change in wind speed and/or direction over a relatively small area. Wind shear can occur at all altitudes, in all directions, and it's typically characterized by directional wind changes of 180° and speed changes of 50 knots or more.Wind Shear is associated with?passing frontal systems, thunderstorms, and temperature inversions with strong upper level winds (greater than 25 knots).MicroburstAssociated w/ convective precipitation 1 mile horizontally , 1000ft veritically 15minutes difficult to detectStability of atmosphere correlates with?its ability to resist vertical motion. A stable atmosphere makes vertical movement of air difficult. An unstable atmosphere allows an upward or downward disturbance to grow into a vertical (or convective) current.Adiabatic heating / Coolingtemperature change, which takes place in all upward and downward moving airAdiabitic cooling average rate of change2 degrees C / 1000ftConditions of most stable air?Cool Dry Air, Stratiform Clouds presentTemperature InversionTemp of Air rises w/ Altitude,For every 20F increase in temp? The air can hold how much humididity?doubleSublimationDirect change of ice to water vapor.Relative HumidityRelative humidity is the actual amount of moisture in the air compared to the total amount of moisture the air could hold at that temperature. For example, if the current relative humidity is 65 percent, the air is holding 65 percent of the total amount of moisture that it is capable of holding at that temperature and pressureTemperature / Dew Point RelationshipThe dew point, given in degrees, is the temperature at which the air can hold no more moisture. As moist, unstable air rises, clouds often form at the altitude where temperature and dew point reach the same value. At this point, the air is completely saturated, and moisture begins to condense out of the air in the form of fog, dew, frost, clouds, rain, hail, or snow.Calculate Cloud BaseSurface Temp - Dew Point = Spread/4.4 * 1000Continental polar air massforms over a polar region and brings cool, dry air with it.Maritime tropicalforms over warm tropical waters and brings warm, moist air with it.Air Mass passing over Warm SurfaceConvective Currents form Good Visibility unstable airAir Mass passing over Cold SurfaceNo Convective Currents Form Poor Visibility Stable AirWarm Front CharacteristicsMoves forward and replaces cold air, warm air rises, temperature drops / condensation occurs. high humidity. Moves slowly 10-25mphCold Front CharacteristicsA cold front happens when a cold, dense, mass of stable air advances and replaces a body of warmer air. Cold fronts move twice as fast as warm fronts, usually progressing at a rate of 25 to 30 mph. However, extreme cold fronts have been recorded moving at speeds of up to 60 mph.Thunderstroms form when?Sufficient Water Vapor Unstable Laps Rate Initial Upward Boost (heat)Thunderstorm Stage 1Cumulus Stage - lifiting action of air begins - 15 MinutesThunderstorm Stage 2Mature Stage -Rain, down rushing air, increases winds temp decreasesThunderstrom Stage 3Dissipating Stage - Anvil Shape, Downdraft spreads and replaces updraftThunderstorm operationsRule of Thumb 20 Nautical MilesDefine FogCloud begins 50ft above surfaceRadiation FogLow Lying Areas (Mountain Valley) Ground cools due to terrestrial radiation Forms clear nights, no wind. burns off with SunAdvection FogCoastal Areas - Sea breezes Warm Air moves over cold surface, wind is required, can persist for days. Wind less than 15 knotsUpslope fogmoist, stable air is forced up sloping land features like a mountain range. Does not burn off w/ Sun, can persist for daysSteam fogForms over bodies of water during cold times. Cold dry air moves over warm water. icing can occurIce FogTemp below freezing water vapor forms ice crystalsDistance from Clouds Vertically500ft CeilingDistance from Clouds Horizontally2000ftMinimum Flight Visiblity3 Statute MilesThe briefing indicates you can expect a low-level temperature inversion with high relative humidity. What weather conditions would you expect?Smooth air, poor visibility, fog, haze, or low clouds.Moisture is added to air byevaporation and sublimation.Which combination of atmospheric conditions will reduce aircraft takeoff and climb performance?High temperature, high relative humidity, and high density altitude.Which factor would likely increase density altitude?An increase in ambient temperature.What conditions are necessary for a thunderstorm to form?High humidity, lifting force, and unstable conditionsGenerally for aircraft, the most hazardous kind of thunderstorm is asquall line thunderstorm.What is a characteristic of stable air?Stratiform cloudsStandard briefingshould be obtained before every flightOutlook briefingprovided when it is 6 or more hours before proposed take-offAbbreviated briefingwill be provided when the pilot requests information to:Aviation Area ForcastsIssued 3 times daily Valid for 18 hours Cover an area the size of several states Visibility is always stated in statute miles (SM) Times are issued in UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) Have 4 Sections4 Sections of Aviation Area ForcastsCommunication and Header Precautionary Statement Synopsis Section A VFR Clouds / WX Section3 Purposes of Wind and Temperatures AloftDetermine most favorable Altitude based on winds and direction of flight Identify ares of possible aircraft icing Predicting turbulence by observing abrupt changes in wind direction and speedPIREPSreport of actual weather conditions that the pilot collects mid-flight.MSL"mean sea level." It's your true altitude, or the average height above standard sea level where the atmospheric pressure is measured in order to calibrate altitude.AGL"above ground level." Very simply, it's the height above the ground over which you're flying.SIGMETSignificant Meteorological Information, and it's a weather advisory that contains information about significant weather events like thunderstorms and severe turbulence.AIRMETAirmen's Meteorological Information, and it's a weather advisory that contains information about weather events that are potentially unsafe. Compared to SIGMETs, AIRMETs cover less severe weather: things like moderate turbulence and icing, sustained surface winds of 30 knots or more, or widespread restricted visibility.VFRVisual Flight Rules 500ft below 1000ft above 2000ft horizontalIFRInstrument Flight Rules When operation of an aircraft under VFR is not safe or legal, because the visual cues outside the aircraft are obscured by weather or darkness, instrument flight rules must be used insteadCloud Cover: ClearNo CloudsCloud Cover: Few1/8 cloud coverCloud Cover: Scatters1/2 cloud coverCloud Cover: Broken7/8 cloud coverCloud Cover: OvercastFull coverCloud Cover: CeeilingsBroken & Overcast4 Panels on Prognostic Chart2 Upper 12 / 24 hr charts weather to 24,000ft 2 Lower 12/24 hrs surface conditionsClass BBig City (Blue Circles), 10,000ft MSLClass CCities (Solid Magenta Lines) Typical: 5 Miles 14,000ft MSLClass DDiminutive (Dashed Blue Lines) Typical: Surface to 2,500ft AFLClass EEverywhere, 700ft AGL to 17,999 MSl Magnenta ScuzzClass GUncontrolled Airspace, typical upper limit is 700ft or 1200ft AGLProhibitedProhibited areas are published in the Federal Register and are depicted on aeronautical charts. The area is charted as a "P" followed by a numberRestrictedRestricted areas are charted with an "R" followed by a number (e.g., R-4401) and are depicted on the en route chart appropriate for use at the altitude or flight level (FL) being flownWarnngWarning areas are similar in nature to restricted areas; however, the United States government does not have sole jurisdiction over the airspace. A warning area is airspace of defined dimensions containing activity that may be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft.Military Operations Areas (MOAs)Military Operations Areas (MOAs) are established for the purpose of separating certain military training activities from instrument flight rules (IFR) traffic. You may be cleared through an MOA only if ATC can provide IFR separationAlertnform nonparticipating pilots of areas that may contain a high volume of pilot training or an unusual type of aerial activity. All activity within an alert area shall be conducted in accordance with regulations, without waiver, and pilots of participating aircraft, as well as pilots transiting the area, shall be equally responsible for collision avoidance.Controlled FiringThe difference between CFAs and other special use airspace is that activities must be suspended when a spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lookout position indicates an aircraft might be approaching the area. There is no need to chart CFAs since they do not cause a nonparticipating aircraft to change its flightpath.Local Airport Advisory (LAA)1) located on the landing airport, 2) have a discrete ground-to-air communication frequency or the tower frequency when the tower is closed, 3) have automated weather reporting with voice broadcasting, 4) and offer a continuous ASOS/AWOS data display, other continuous direct reading instruments, or manual observations available to the specialist.Military Training Routes (MTRs)A Military Training Route (MTR) is used by the military for conducting low-altitude, high-speed flight training Typically, the routes above 1,500 ft. AGL are flown under instrument flight rules (IFR), and the routes flown under 1,500 ft. AGL are flown under visual flight rules (VFR)How are TFRs issuedNOTAM - Notice to AirmanNOTAMs consist of :Flight Restriction, Time Period, Area Defined, Altitudes affected FAA coordination facility, telephone number, reason for restrictionWithin how many days must an sUAS accident be reported to the FAA?10 daysAccording to 14 CFR Part 107, an sUAS is a unmanned aircraft system weighing:Less than 55 lbsAccording to 14 CFR Part 107, what is required to operate a small unmanned aircraft within 30 minutes after sunset?Use of anit-collision lightsAdvisory Circulars are:Issued to inform the public of non-regulatory material and are not binding.Advisory Circulars required to recall on test?60 - Airmen 70 - Airspace 90 - Air Traffic & General Operating RulesA person applying for a remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating must be at least:16years oldBefore each flight, the Remote PIC must ensure that:Objects carried on the sUAS are secureThe only cloud type forcast in TAF reports?Cumulonimbus