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66 terms

Chapter 8 - Desserts and Baked Goods

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Strengtheners
Provide stability and ensure that a baked item doesn't collapse when it is removed from the oven.
Shortenings
Any fat, such as oil or butter, that acts as a shortening in baking.
Sweetners
Refined sugars, sugar syrups, molasses, brown sugar, corn syrup, honey, and malt syrup.
Flavorings
Cocoa, spices, salts, extracts, and so on that affect a baked item's taste and color.
Leaveners
Chemical, Organic, & Physical; necessary in baking, they allow the dough or batter to rise.
Thickeners
Gelatin, flour, arrowroot (a powdered starch made from a tropical root), cornstarch, and eggs. Combined with the stirring process, determines the consistency of the finished product.
Liquids
One of the most important elements used in baking; can be water, milk, cream, molasses, honey, or butter.
Additives
Such as food coloring.
Caramelization
Occurs whenever sugar is used as an ingredient in baked items; the heat causes the sugar to turn a light brown (caramel) color.
Extracts
Flavorful oils taken from such foods as vanilla, lemon, and almond.
Formulas
Standardized recipes for bakery products.
Baker's Percentages
Flour always has a proportion of 100 percent, and the percentages of all other ingredients are calculated in relation to the flour.
Yield
How much of something is produced.
Sifting
Adds air to flour, cocoa, and confectioner's sugar; removes lumps and filters out any impurities.
Lean Dough
Made with flour, yeast, water, and salt; they have very little or no sugar or fat.
Rich Dough
Made with the addition of shortening or tenderizing ingredients such as sugars, syrups, butter, eggs, milk, and cream.
Straight-dough Method
Also called the straight-mix method; this method can be used for all types of doughs - lean, rich, and sponge. The baker can combine all ingredients at the same time, or he or she might mix the yeast with the warm water first.
Kneading
Manipulating dough to develop the gluten and give the dough the stretch and give it needs to develop the proper texture.
Sponge Method
Used to mix yeast doughs. The first stage of this method involves mixing the yeast, half of the liquid, and half of the flour to make a thick batter called a sponge. After the sponge rises and doubles its size, the remaining fat, liquid, salt, sugar, and flour are added.
Sponge
The batter after the first stage of the sponge method is complete.
Sourdough
Type of bread made with a yeast batter and leavened with a starter.
Starter
Mixture of water, yeast, and all-purpose flour that has been fermented until it has a sour smell (usually overnight).
Proof
To allow dough to rise a second time.
Quick Breads
Popular snack and dessert item that is usually easy and quick to make. Quickbreads use chemical leaveners rather than organic ones and therefore, don't require a rising period.
Creaming Method
Process of mixing the fat and sugar together to produce a very fine crumb and a dense, rich texture.
Foaming Method
Creating a foam of whole eggs, yolks, or whites provides the structure for the cake. This is used to make cakes with the lightest texture, such as angel food and chiffon cake.
Two-stage Method
Used to make high-ratio cakes. The first stage is to combine a softened or melted shortening with the dry ingredients. The second stage is to add and blend in one-half of the liquid being used in the recipe and then gradually add the remaining liquid to the mixture.
High-Ratio Cake
Cake that contains more sugar than flour in the recipe.
Icings
Also called frostings, they are sweet coatings for cakes and other baked goods.
Buttercream
Very popular icing made of sugar and fat or shortening. Most often used in cakes.
Foam
"Boiled Icing"; usually made with hot sugar syrup. Often used on cakes.
Fondant
Smooth and creamy; cook by combining sugar, water, and a glucose or a corn syrup. often used on éclairs, petits fours, cakes, and napoleons.
Fudge
Use cocoa/chocolate, sugar, butter, and a liquid(water or milk). Used on cupcakes, layer, and sheet cakes.
Ganache
French term referring to a smooth mixture of chocolate and cream. Used to cover cakes or tortes.
Glaze
Can be a simple corn syrup, or contain fruit or chocolate; adds moisture, shine, and sometimes flavor to bakery products. ususally drizzled.
Royal Icing
"Decorator's Icing"; almost always used only for decorations. Uncooked; dries brittle. made from confectioners' sugar and egg whites, food coloring optional.
Steamed Pudding
More stable than soufflés because of the greater percentage of eggs and sugar in the batter. Baked custard and chocolate sponge pudding are examples.
Soufflés
Lightened with beaten egg whites then baked, causing it to rise like a cake. Rely on egg whites and are not as stable as puddings.
3-2-1 Dough
Used for pies, this dough is made of three parts flour, two parts fat, and one part water.
Baking Blind
Procedure for preparing a prebaked pie shell.
Dock
To pierce a pie crust in several places with a fork.
Quark
Cheese that is a lot like sour cream.
Roll-in Dough
"Laminated Dough"; This method is used to make Danish, Croissant, and puff pastry.
Puff Pastry
Elegant product also called pâte feuilletée [squares], that can be used in both sweet and savory applications.
Phyllo
Dough used to prepare baklava.
Bar
Cookies made by baking three or four bars of dough the length of the baking pan, and then slicing them into small bars. Ex. Biscotti
Dropped
Cookies made by taking a soft dough and dropping them from a spoon or scoop onto the cookie sheet. Ex. Chocolate Chip, Oatmeal
Molded
Mold stiff dough by hand into any shape to make these cookies. Ex. Peanut Butter
Rolled
Cut these cookies from a stiff dough that has been rolled out on a baking board. Ex. Decorated Sugar, Shortbread
Sheet
Pour the batter into the entire baking pan and then slice it into individual squares or rectangles after baking. Ex. Brownies, Blondies, Butterscoth Brownies
Nibs
Small pieces of cocoa beans that are the basis of all cocoa products.
Chocolate Liquor
Cocoa beans crushed into a paste that is completely unsweetened.
Cocoa Butter
Liquid from pressed cocoa liquor.
Cocoa Powder
Solid from pressed cocoa liquor that is ground down.
Bloom
White coating that sometimes appears on the surface of the chocolate and indicates that some of the cocoa butter has melted and then recrystalized on the surface.
Tempering
Melting by heating it gently and gradually.
Ice Cream
Frozen and aerated cream custard and flavorings.
Sherbert
Frozen mixture of fruit juice or fruit purée that contain milk and/or egg for creaminess.
Sorbet
Frozen mixture of fruit juice or fruit purée that contain no dairy and contain sweeteners and other flavors or additives.
Frozen Yogurt
Frozen dessert that contains yogurt in addition to normal ice cream ingredients, such as sugar or other sweeteners, gelatin, coloring, and flavors.
Poached Fruit
Combination of fruit with a liquid, usually a mixture of sugar, spices, and wine.
Torte
Elegant, rich, many-layered cake often filled with buttercream or jam.
Crème Anglaise
Vanilla sauce for desserts.
Coulis
Fruit sauce made from fresh berries or other fruits.
Pastry Cream
"Crème Pâtissière"; this cream has greater density than custard and is frequently used as the filling for pastries such as éclairs.
Syneresis
Watery liquid that leaks from a custard as it is cut and served or as it sits and ages. It is safe to eat.