Terms in this set (45)
Why did the U.S. government create the American Indian Reservation system?
To gain land for farming and to search for resources, such as oil or gold. They also gained farmers for forcing the Indians to do this.
What sources of conflict between the Plains Indians and the U.S. Government were there?
Breakings of the treaty. The Bureau of Indian Affairs agents would not give the promised supplies to the American Indians. The government also made the land smaller.
How did Chief Joseph, Geronimo, and Sarah Winnemucca respond to white treatment of the American Indian?
Joseph responded to the white treatment of american indians by surrendering. Geronimo responded by fleeing with ~75 people, surrendered, escaped, and gave up. Sarah called attention to the problems, and was outraged by the forced removal of the Paiute.
How did the U.S. Government try to assimilate American Indians?
Establishing a system of American Indian schools. These students were forced to speak english, wear "proper" clothes and change their names. Government slowly broke up the reservations.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Government agency responsible for managing American Indian issues.
Sand Creek Massacre
(1864) Attack by U.S. Army troops in which some 200 peaceful Cheyenne were killed in Colorado.
Battle of the Little Bighorn
(1876) Battle between U.S. Soldiers, led by George Armstrong Custer, and Sioux worriers, worst U.S. Army defeat in the west.
Massacre at Wounded Knee
(1890) U.S. Army's killing of approximately 300 Sioux at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota, Ended U.S. American Indian wars on the Great Plains.
Dawes General Allotment Act
(1887) Legislation that required American Indian lands to be surveyed and Indian Families given allotments of 160 acres, with the remaining land sold, resulted in the loss of Two-Thirds of American Indian land.
Was a Chiricahua Apache leader who objected to white settlers pouring into their homelands. He allowed people on the Apache land if they were travelling to California. His family was held hostage when his people were accused of stealing a child and cattle.
John M. Chivington
Was a U.S. Army colonel who was a part of the Sand Creek Massacre. When black Kettle's people surrendered, Chivington's people opened fire at them. He thought it was right to Kill Indians.
(Tatanka Iyotake) was a Lakota Sioux who was also an important leader of Sioux resistance. He was born in 1831near the banks of the Missouri River, and his nickname was "slow" as a child. He first fought a battle at age 14. when he was given the name "sitting bull" for his bravery.
George Armstrong Custer
A general in 1876. Had ordered and immediate attack on the American Indians by 600 of his troops. He led this battle, the battle of Little Bighorn, and him and all his soldiers died that day.
A Paiute who began a religious movement called the Ghost Dance. He thought it could cause the white settlers to leve, dead Indians to return, buffalo to return, and to revive their culture and life.
Was the leader of the Nez Percé, who agreed to relocate to another reservation. He wanted the fight to stop, and he felt heartache and sadness for his land and his people.
The apache leader who had fled a reservation with his tribe, were captured, escaped, and once they were caught again, gave up. his surrender wat the marked end of armed resistance to the reservation system.
A Paiute reformer who alled out the probems of American Indians. She was outraged when the Paiute were removed by force to Washington Territory. SHe demanded fair treatment for American Indians.
How did the U.S. government aid the economic development in the West?
Developed 3 acts; The Homestead Act, The Pacific Railway Act, and The Morrill Act.
Wy did people migrate to the west?
They wanted to seek a better life. Fell into 3 categories; White Americans from the East (mostly middle class farmers and business men), African Americans from the South (moved to escaped tragedies and violence) , and Immigrants from other countries ("american fever" and wanted to be a part of the new settlement).
How did the environment influence farming practices and daily life in the West?
Dry environment. water and trees were scarce. worked like factories to produce more products and create more profits when weather is good, but when conditions were bad farmers were very unsuccessful.
What difficulties did farm families faced on the Great Plains?
Harsh weather. Soil Roofs and sides of houses dirt would would fall through when rainy or windy. Winter would be very cold; summers unbelievably hot.
Any citizen or intended citizen to select any surveyed land up to 160 acres and to gain title to it after 5 years' residence if the person cultivated the land.
Pacific Railway Act
Gave lands to railroad companies to develop a railroad line linking the East and West coasts.
Granted more than 17 million acres of federal land to the states. The act ordered the sale of this land to finance the construction of agricultural and engineering colleges. This led to the finding of more than 70 state universities.
Southern African Americans who settled western lands in the late 1880's to escape persecution in the South.
Buildings made from chunks cut from heavy topsoil that were stacked by bricks.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Created in 1862 that helped farmers adapt to their new environment. They sought out and publicized new varieties of wheat suitable for the Great Plains, where the environment was too harsh for traditional winter wheat.
Large-scale farm usually owned by large companies and run like a factory.
A former slave, who at 70, was a leader to trek west and escape slavery.
Born 1873, was one out of the many people who recorded stories about their life. She and her moved to Nebraska from Virginia. She graduated from the University of Nebraska, Taught high school, and became an associate editor for McClure's magazine. Writing full-time in 1912. She wrote about the Mid-Western American life.
A hardy breed of cow created by interbreeding English and Spanish cattle.
Long overland treks on which cowboys herded cattle from raches to rail lines.
A town located along a railroad.
Free grazing land.
Cheap fencing material in 1874.
Invented the Barbed wire. He was an Illinois farmer who patented it in 1874.
Kansas was considered a dead, bleak place. It was the furthest point east where cattle businesses could be made. Began the cattle boom.
Kansas was one of the best-known railhead stops, and was known to be a cattle town.
Wyoming was one of the places where long drives ended.
Nebraska was one of the places where long drives ended.
One of the worlds richest silver sources.
Mining technique developed in Mexico and South America during the 1700's that used mercury to extract silver from one, used in the western U.S.
A method to reach ore by shooting water at high pressure to rip away gravel and dirt to expose the minerals beneath.
A method to reach ore by sinking deep shafts to obtain ore locked in veins of rocks.
William H. Seword
The U.S. Secretary of State who negotiated the purchase of Alaska in 1867. He bought Alaska for 2 cents an Acre. People scoffed at this purchase, but Alaska happened to be discovered with gold.