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Chapter 2 Solids, Liquids, Gas
Terms in this set (59)
this fixed, closely packed arrangement of particles in a solid causes it to have a definite shape and volume
How do you describe a solid?
a solid that is made up of crystals in which particles are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern
a solid made up of particles that are not arranged in a regular pattern
the 2 types of solids are...?
Because its particles are free to move, a liquid has no definite shape. However it does have a definite volume.
How do you describe liquid?
means "a substance that flows"
the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together
a liquid's resistance to flowing
As gas particles move, they spread apart, filling all the space available. Thus, a gas has neither definite shape nor definite volume
How do you describe a gas?
the force pushing on a surface divided by the area of that surface
pressure = force/area
How do you find the amount of pressure?
What is pressure measured in?
the change in state from a solid to a liquid
the specific temperature that melting occurs at
At a solid's melting point its particles vibrate so fast that they break free from their fixed positions
What happens to the particles of a solid as it melts?
the change of state from a liquid to a solid
its particles are moving so slowly that they begin to take on fixed positions
What happens at a liquid's freezing point?
the change in state from a liquid to a gas
vaporization occurs when the particles in a liquid gain enough energy to move independently
What happens when the gas particles in a liquid gain enough energy to move independently?
vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a liquid
vaporization that takes place both below and at the surface of a liquid
the temperature at which a liquid boils
the change in state from a gas to a liquid
when particles in a gas lose enough thermal energy to form a liquid
When does condensation occur?
occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas
During sublimation do the particles of a solid pass through the liquid state as they form a gas?
When the temperature of a gas at a constant volume is increased, the pressure of the gas ______________. When the temperature is decreased, the pressure of the gas ______________.
When the temperature of a gas at constant pressure is increased, its volume increases. When the temperature of a gas at constant pressure is decreased, its volume decreases.
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases.
a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose product is constant
No they are always moving .
Are the particles in a solid motionless?
Because of surface tension and viscosity.
Why is liquid able to flow?
If it has a high viscosity it flows slowly. visa-versa
How do liquids with a high viscosity differ from liquids with a low viscosity?
The faster they move the higher the pressure. The slower they move the lower the pressure.
Describe how the motions of gas particles are related to the pressure exerted by the gas.
In melting the particles break free and speed up. But in freezing the particles slow down and almost stop.
How does what happens to the particles in a substance differ from what happens in freezing?
Evaporation only takes place on the surface of a liquid while boiling takes place below AND at the surface if a liquid.
Compare and contrast the two types of vaporization.
the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance.
Energy of motion
the change of state from a gas directly to a solid
they both flow
What do liquids and gases have in common?
One nail because you are distributing all of you weight to one nail. But lying down spreads out your weight and hurts less.
Which one hurts more? Lying on a bed of nails or stepping on one nail? Why?
The gas state!
Which state has more kinetic energy?
particles that are tightly packed and are vibrating slightly in fixed positions; has a definite shape and volume
has a definite volume but not a definite shape; particles are packed almost as closely as a solid but can move around freely
also a fluid, as these particles move they spread apart, filling all the available space; has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume
When the temperature of gas at a constant volume is increased, the pressure of the gas increases. When the temperature is decreased, the pressure of the gas decreases.
How are pressure and temperature of a gas related?
When the temperature of a gas is increased at a constant pressure, the volume increases. When the temperature of a gas is decreased at constant pressure, its volume decreases. (Charles's Law
How are volume and temperature of a gas related?
the relationship between two variables whose ratio is a constant value
When the temperature of a gas is increased, the volume of the gas decreases. When the pressure is decreased, the volume increases. (Boyle's Law)
How are pressure and volume of a gas related?
x axis - volume, y axis - pressure; temperature remains same (constant) inverse relationship - when one doubles the other halves.
Describe Boyle's law graph. Name axes.
x axis - temperature, y axis - volume; pressure remains same (constant)
proportional relationship - when temp goes up, volume goes up i.e. gas expands when heated
Describe Charles' law graph. Name axes.
temperature stays constant
Boyle's law only applies when ..... stays constant.
pressure is held constant.
Charles' law only applies when .... stays constant.
takes on shape of its container, can be a gas or a liquid, flows
Describe a fluid
your sweat gains thermal energy from you skin and evaporates
You cool off when you sweat because...
pressure increases according to Gay-Lussac
A gas BBQ grill uses propane gas. The propane is stored in a rigid tank. What happens to the pressure of the propane when the tank is left outside on a hot day? What law describes this?
States that the pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the Kelvin temperature when the volume remains constant. When temp goes up, pressure goes up.
Charles' Law - temp goes down, volume goes down.
If you take balloon outside on cold day it shrinks. Which law?
sublimation - surface particles of snow gain energy and turn into a gas.
In cold climates the amount of snow on the ground may decrease even if the temperature stays below zero degrees Celsius. Why?
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