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Chapter 22: Descent with Modification
Terms in this set (49)
Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvierʹs attempt to explain the existence of
the fossil record
Which of the events described below agrees with the idea of catastrophism?
The sudden demise of the dinosaurs, and various other groups, by the impact of a large extraterrestrial body with Earth
What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging
During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students' remarks, ʺThe giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result.ʺ Which statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this studentʹs misconception?
Characteristics acquired during an organismʹs life are generally not passed on through genes
Which group is composed entirely of individuals who maintained that species are fixed (i.e., unchanging)?
Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Cuvier
In the mid-1900s, the Soviet geneticist Lysenko believed that his winter wheat plants, exposed to ever-colder temperatures, would eventually give rise to ever more cold-tolerant winter wheat. Lysenkoʹs attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of
Which stratum should contain the greatest proportion of extinct organisms
If ʺxʺ indicates the location of fossils of two closely related species, then fossils of their most-recent common ancestor are most likely to occur in which stratum?
Who would have proposed that the boundaries between each stratum mark the occurrence of different localized floods?
Which pair would have been likely to agree that strata such as those depicted here were deposited gradually over long periods of time by subtle mechanisms that are still at work?
Hutton and Lyell
Darwinʹs mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of Earthʹs ancient age?
As a young biologist, Charles Darwin had expected the living plants of temperate South America would resemble those of temperate Europe, but he was surprised to find that they more closely resembled the plants of tropical South America. The biological explanation for this observation is most properly associated with the field of
Which of these naturalists synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin?
Charles Darwin was the first person to propose
a mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence
In Darwinʹs thinking, the more closely related two different organisms are, the
more recently they shared a common ancestor
Which of these conditions should completely prevent the occurrence of natural selection in a population over time?
All variation between individuals is due only to environmental factors
Natural selection is based on the following except
individuals adapt to their environments and, thereby, evolve
Which of the following represents an idea that Darwin learned from the writings of Thomas Malthus?
Populations tend to increase at a faster rate that thie food supply normally allows
Which statement about natural selection is most correct?
Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute more to the next generation's gene pool, that do poorly adapted individuals
Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection?
2,4, 1, 3
A biologist studied a population of squirrels for 15 years. During that time, the population was never than 30 squirrels and never more than 45. Her data showed that over half of the squirrels born did not survive to reproduce, because of competition for food and predation. In a single generation, 90% of the squirrels that were born lived to reproduce, and the population increased to 80. Which inference(s) about this population might be true?
all of the above
To observe natural selection's effects on a population, which of these must be true?
A and B only
If the HMS Beagle had completely bypassed the Galapagos Islands, Darwin would have had a much poorer understanding of the
ability of populations to undergo modification as they adapt to a particular environment
During drought years on the Galapagos, small, easily eaten seeds become rare, leaving mostly large, hard-cased seeds that only birds with large beaks can eat. If a drought persists for several years, what should one expect to result from natural selection?
More small-beaked birds dying than larger-beaked birds. The offspring produced in subsequent generations have a higher percentage of birds with large beaks.
Which of the following statements is an inference of natural selection?
Subsequent generations of a population should have greater proportions of individuals that possess traits better suited for sucess in unchanging environments.
Which of the following must exist in a populations before natural selection can act upon upon that population?
Genetic variation among individuals
Which of Darwin's ideas had the strongest connection to Darwin having read Malthus's essay on human population growth?
Struggle for existence
According to this tree, what percent of the species seem to be extant(i.e., not extinct)?
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V-Z, has given rise to the greatest number of species, both extant and extinct?
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V-Z, has been most successful in terms of the percent of its derived species that are extant?
Which of the five common ancestors, labeled V-Z, has been most successful in terms of the percent of its deprived species that are extant?
Which pair would probably have agreed with the process that is depicted by this tree?
Lamarck and Wallace
Evolutionary trees such as this properly understood by scientists to be
In hypothetical environment, fishes called pike-cichlids are visual predators of algae-eating fish(i.e they locate their prey by sight). If a population of algae-eaters experiences predation pressure from pike-cichlids, which of the following should least likely be observed in the algae-eater population over the course of many generations? Selection for larger female algae-eaters, bearing broods composed of more, and larger young
Selection for larger female algae-eaters, bearing broods comprised of more, and larger young
Which statement best describes the evolution of pesticide resistance in a population of insects?
Offspring of insects that are genetically
DDT was once considered a "silver bullet" that would permanently eradicate insect pests. Today, instead, DDT is largely useless against many insects. Which of these would have been required for this pest eradication effort to be successful in the long run?
None of the individual insects sho.ld have possessed genomes that made them resistant to DDT
Some members of a photosynthetic plan species are genetically resistant to an herbicide, while other members of the same species are not resistant to the herbicide. Which combination of events should cause the most effective replacement of the non-herbicide-resistant strain of plants by the resistant strain?
The presence of the herbicide in the environment, and the maintenance of the proper conditions for many generations.
Of the following anatotomical structures, which is honologous to the wing of a bird?
Flipper of a cetacean
If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that
they should share fewer homologous structures that two more closely related organisms
Structures ass different an human arms, bat wings and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones, these bones having developed from very similar embryonic tissues. How do biologists interpret these similarities?
by identifying the bones as being homologous, and by the principle of convergent evolution
Over evolutionary time, many cave-dwelling organisms have lost their eyes. Tapeworms have lost their digestive systems. Whales have lost their hind limbs. How can natural selection account for these losses?
Under particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each of these structures presented greater costs than benefits.
Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth?
All organisms use essentially the same genetic code
Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree?
Relationships between DNA sequences among the species did not match relationships between skeletal patterns
Which of the following statements most detracts from the claim that the human appendix is a completely vestigial(dysfunctional) organ?
The appendix has a substantial amount of defensive lymphatic tissue
Members of two different species possess a similar-looking structure that they use in a similar fashion to perform the same function. Which information would best help distinguish between an explanation based on homology versus one based on convergent evolution?
The two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide sequences that code for these proteins are almost identical.
Ichthyosaurs were aquatic dinosaurs. Fossils show us that they had dorsal fins and tails, as do fish, even though their closes relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. The dorsal fins and tails of icthyosaurs and fish are
examples of convergent evolution, and adaptations to a common enviroment
It has been observed that organisms on islands are different from, but closely related to, similar forms found on the nearest continent. This is taken as evidence that
island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors
Monkeys of South and Central America have prehensile tails, meaning that their tails can be used to grasp objects. The tails of African and Asian monkeys are not prehensile. Which discipline is most likely to provide an evolutionary explanation for how this difference in tails came about
The theory of evolution is most accurately described as
an overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time
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