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irreversible cell injury
structural "pint of no return", vacuolization, mitochondrial damage, Ca2+ movement into cell
common cell injuries
ATP depletion, oxygen-deprived free radicals, intracellular Ca2+ increases, changes in membrane permeability
examples of free radicals
reactive oxygen species, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide
problems linked to free radicals
atherosclerosis, strokes, ischemia brain injury, alzheimer disease, cancer, diabetes, reperfusion
symptoms of cell injury
fatigue, malaise, pain loss of sense of well-being and altered appetite, fever and increased heart rate, leukocytosis
ischemic injury to neurons and glial cells; cells digested by own enzymes; tissue soft and become liquid- produces pus
breast, pancreas and abdominal structures; caused by lipases; tissue opaque and chalk white
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