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30 terms

Altered Cell and Tissue Biology

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Cell bio is altered by
adaptation, injury, neoplasia, aging, disease
atrophy
decrease in cell size
hypertrophy
increase in cell size
hyperplasia
increase in number of cells
metaplasia
reversible replacement of one type of mature cell by another
dysplasia
abnormal cell changes, size, shape, organization; "atypical hyperplasia"
cell adaptation if...
atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia
Reversible cell injury
loss of ATP, cell swelling, ribosome detachment
active injury to cell
immediate response of "entire" cell
irreversible cell injury
structural "pint of no return", vacuolization, mitochondrial damage, Ca2+ movement into cell
necrosis
common, severe cell swelling/ organelle breakdown
apoptosis
programmed cell death
hypoxia
lack of sufficient oxygen
anoxia
total starvation of oxygen/ block of oxygen
hypoxemia
reduction of o2 in whole body
ischemia
reduction of blood supple to certain tissue
common cell injuries
ATP depletion, oxygen-deprived free radicals, intracellular Ca2+ increases, changes in membrane permeability
Free radicals
uncharged atoms of molecules with an unpaired electron
examples of free radicals
reactive oxygen species, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide
problems linked to free radicals
atherosclerosis, strokes, ischemia brain injury, alzheimer disease, cancer, diabetes, reperfusion
antioxidants
vitamins C and E, cysteine, glutathione, albumin, and transferin
enzymes that fight antioxidants
superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase
symptoms of cell injury
fatigue, malaise, pain loss of sense of well-being and altered appetite, fever and increased heart rate, leukocytosis
coagulative
kidneys, heart and adrenals. protein denaturation; tissue firm and swollen
liquefactive
ischemic injury to neurons and glial cells; cells digested by own enzymes; tissue soft and become liquid- produces pus
caseous necrosis
TB in the lungs; combined coagulative and liquefaction; looks like clumped cheese
fat necrosis
breast, pancreas and abdominal structures; caused by lipases; tissue opaque and chalk white
gangrene
usually from severe hypoxia; dry, wet and gas
apoptosis
active process of cell destruction. programmed cell death
mechanisms of apoptosis
mitochonrial (intrinsic) pathway, death (extrinsic) pathway