Peds Pharm

If a nurse has difficulty understanding an order, who should the nurse ask for clarification?
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What is a hypertonic solution and why is it used?Solutes exceed solvent-- corrects electrolyte imbalances-- D5NS, D5RLWhat is the age of an adolescent?From 13-18 years of ageCan you name a common medication that can kill a child in just one dose if given in error?CCB's, Narcotics, Glucotrol, TCA's, Theophylline, antiarrhythmics and othersWhat colors can antibiotics turn children's stools?Black, blue, pink, orange, red, brown, green, white speckles, etc.What is the definition of a premature neonateNeonate born at <38 weeks gestational ageWhat is the easiest way to prevent math errors when figuring doses?Do the math in your head first. Estimate if not the same an error has occurred.What is the age range of a "child"?From age 1-12 yearsWhat is a hypotonic solution and why is it used?Solvent exceeds the solute--used to dilute serum electrolytes. 0.45% SalineHow much medication can you inject into the Deltoid muscle of an adolescent?1 mL same as an adultWhere can you give IM injection to a child greater than 3 years of age?vastus lateralis, dorsagluteal, ventrogluteal, deltoidWhat is an isotonic solution and why is it used?solvent and solutes are balanced--expands volume, normal fluids- NS, RL, D5WWhat is the definition of a neonate?Full term newborn from 0-4 weeks postnatal ageWhat medications can cause fevers in children?Sulfas, Amphotericin B, Barbs, Cephalosporins, PCN, Phenytoin, ASA, StreptomycinWhat measurements are used to teach a child's parents how to give medications?Most do not understand metric terms. Household measurements are used (tsp)Who is legally responsible for recognizing incorrect and unsafe dosages?the person administering the medicationWhat can happen if excessively high concentrations of an IV drug is infused into a patient? (Example: gentamycin that is not diluted to less than 2 mg/mL)Causes vein irritation vein breakdown and toxic effectsAt what weight is a child considered to be equal to a standard adult dosage weight?50 kg or 110 pounds a childs doses should not exceed the maximum adult doseHow much medication can you inject into the deltoid muscle of a child?0.5mLUntil what age is the GI emptying time slowed?6 monthsWhat years does the GI emptying time released?304 years of lifeinfants have ___skin hydration and ____ body surface areaIncreased, increased, quicklyTransfer of percutaneous drugs is influenced by what?total body water, the younger the patient the MORE water soluble the drug must be given. The younger the patient the higher the concentration of the drug must be usedWhat drug displaces bilirubin and causes severe jaundice (hyperbilirubinimia)Sulfa DrugsSulfa drugs can not be given under ____ but should wait till atleast ___3mo and 6 mowhat does hyperbilirubinima cause if it continues and what does is it cause?Kernicturus and it causes developmental delaysWhat level of bilirubin can you see jaundice in all humans7What is the Rule of 5 for jaundicetruck gets 5, trucks plus legs is 10, if everywhere is yellow is 15What drugs are extremely affected by the 1st pass effecttylenol and pain medswhat is the highest dose for adults and kids for tylenol4g adult 2g kidswhat enzymes metabolize drugs, grapefruit, and cigsmicrozomal enzymeswhat drug do you not give with grapefruit juice?LiprotorWhat is the concern with statin?rhabdomyolysis. breakdown of muscle fibers that leads to the release of muscle fiber contents (myoglobin) into the bloodstream. it is harmful to the kidneys often causes kidney damageWhat drug causes BC to not work?anti-seizure, antibioticswhen does the microzomal enzyme become fully functioning1-3 years oldhow does the metabolism in the liver change from 1) Premie 2) Newborn 3)Infant 4) 6mo-10yrs 5)adult 6)1) premie: long half life 2) newborn: < premie 3) Infant: <than newborn 4) 6mo-10yrs: shortest half life of all 5) adult: longer than child 6) >65: longer than adult from 6mo-10yrs the drug does not last very much at all increasing the need of dosesWhen is the time that the kidneys begin to work? When is the fully functional GFR present and when do it decrease again?Kidneys do not work as well at the first and on the 7th day of birth that begin to work more and the dose is increased 6 months is fully functioning over 65 GFR decreases again by 25-30%What drug stains the teeth and what age should it not be given?Tetracycline stains the teeth and shouldn't be given to kids 8 and underWhat is tetracycline prescribed for?limes disease and rocky mountain diseaseWhat drug is not given less than 18 years and why?Fluoroquinolones because they cause tendon tears especially given with steroidWhat is the safest Fluoroquinolone and other examples?Cipro safest. Levoquin still on the marketWhat drugs cause Steven Johnson's syndrome?Seizure and sulfa drugsWhat drugs cause photosensitivity?Acutain (any retnoids/acne cream), tetracyclines, and sulfar drugsWhat drugs do you avoid when allergic to penicillin?Class 1 and 2 (cephlasporins) should never be taken! Class 3 or 4 are safe like rocephen because they are so far away from the originalGingival Hyperplasia can be caused by what drug?Dilantin (seizure drug)What is the preferred route for kids?OralWhat can cause reflex for a kid to swallow?Blowing in the face