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heart is divided into ___ sides


heart is divided into ____ chamber


heart automaticity

the ability to initiate electrical stimulus independently

heart excitability

the ability to respond to electrical stimulation

heart conductivity

transmit electrical stimulation from cell to cell in heart

heart contractility

stretch as a single unit and recoil (heart beat) contraction

heart rhythmicity

repeat cycle with regularity


heart attack

cardiac arrest

heart stops


tissue damage



left side of heart

sends oxygenated blood to the body

right side of heart

receives deoxygenated blood from the body

what divides the heart in two


tissue layers of the heart

endocardium, myocardium, epicardium


lines the inside of the cardiac chamber, made of thin endothelial cells


middle layer, made of muscle fibers and responsible for pumping


made of fibrous & loose connective tissue, also know as visceral pericardium

visceral pericadium

sac that surrounds & protects the heart

2 types of valves

atrioventricular, semilunar

atrioventricular valves

"lub" separates the atria from ventricles

2 types of atrioventricular valves

tricuspid and mitral valve(bicuspid)

tricuspid valve

separates RA & RV

mitral(bicuspid) valve

separates LA & LV

semilunar valves

"dub" separates the ventricles from the aorta and pulmonary artery

2 types of semilunar valves

pulmonary and aortic

pulmonary valve

separates RV & pulmonary artery

aortic valve

separates the LV from the aorta

2 major coronary arteries



branches off to supply the nerve tissue of the conduction system


branches off into the LAD and circumflex artery, supplies blood to LA, LV and septum

SA node


starling's law

greater the stretch of myocardium, the stronger the ventrical contraction(heart beat)

the heart beat begins: electrical impulse initiates the SA node to fire-

SA node sends the stimulus to the AV node through internodal tracts-

AV node will initiate electrical stimulus if SA node malfunctions at a rate of

40-60 bpm, stimulus sent to bundles of his from here-

bundle of his branches off into the lt and rt bundle branches-

feed the ventricles rt and lt and bachmann's bundle down to

purkinje fibers which are end of conduction system,

once stimulation here, the ventricles contract.

normal SA node rate is

60-100 bpm

SA node is

located in the back wall of the RA

AV node is

located right above the atrioventricular septum

bundle of his is

located in the septum

during the electrical conduction, electrical movement of cells is from polarization to


once contraction occurs, the charges inside the cells

returns to normal until the next stimulus is sent. this process is called repolarization

polarization is

negative state inside the myocardial cells, cells at rest

depolarization is

positive state inside myocardial cell

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