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Arts and Humanities
Social and Political Philosophy
WGST 112 Exam 1- Collier
Terms in this set (60)
a confusion of maleness w/ humanity, putting men at the center and relegating women to outsiders in society
-Coined by Charlotte Perkins Gilman
-the way society organizes understandings of sexual difference
-the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles
"the personal is political"
-Short essay by Carol Hanisch (2nd wave 1969)
-member of Red Stockings
-led a protest at the Ms. America pageant
-Asserted that even most personal situations show how society is organized in ways that disempower women
-bring up questions about sexuality, feelings, control over bodies to show they are political issues
-phrase coined to explain how things taken as personal or idiosyncratic have broader social, political, and economic cause and consequences
patriarchy: a system where males dominate because power and authority are in the hands of adult men
First Wave Feminism
mid-19th and early 20th Century women's rights, property and suffrage campaigns until 1920 when women won right to vote
-the earliest period of feminist activism in the United States
-Focus: mandated inequalities, particularly women's suffrage, Cady Stanton, Mott, Anthony, Stone
Second Wave Feminism- womens rights, employment, education
-dealt with more formal and informal inequalities (workplace, family, sexuality, reproductive freedom, ERA, viewed pop culture as sexist, and violence against women product of Civil Rights Movement
-Women's Liberation Movement
Third Wave- social justice
-the most recent period of feminist activity
-Early 1990s to present
-Seeks to avoid 2nd essentialism
-focusing on issues of diversity and the variety or identities women can possess
-Women are more than just upper middle class white heterosexual woman
Consciousness Raising Groups
-Coined by Kathie Sarachild in late 1960's
-Groups of people attempting to call attention to larger issues
-women would exchange experiences of discrimination, read radical analyses of oppression, and develop an understanding that it was the patriarchal or sometimes capitalist society that was causing their insecurity and lack of advancement in the business and academic world, not their own actions or lack of them.
-They developed the slogan "the personal is political"
social system in which males are the dominant social figures
Equal Pay Act
1963 by JFK as part of New Frontier to amend Fair Labor Standards Act, established that wages can't be determined by race
Civil Rights Act
1964, outlawed discrimination against gender, race, ethnicity & religion, ended voter registration requirements and segregation in schools
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Established in 1965 under Title XII of the CRA
Enforces laws against workplace discrimination
Portion of the Education Amendments of 1972, states in part "no person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance..."
Elizabeth Cady Stantion
abolition of slavery, temperance, author of Declaration of Sentiments, organized Seneca Falls Convention, said women needed education and encouragement too, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869
Susan B. Anthony
quest for suffrage, arrested for voting, refused right to speech at New York son's of temperance meeting, believed it was crucial to equality, 1820-1906
-helped pass 19th amendment, allowing women to vote, referred to as Anthony Amendment
abolitionist and women's rights advocate, best known for Ain't I A Woman? at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention May 1851
ratified 1920, granted women's suffrage, right to vote
Declaration of Sentiments
written by Cady Stanton, presented at the Seneca Falls Convention, signed by 68 women and 32 men, based off of the Declaration of Independence, very controversial
Seneca Falls Convention
July 18-19 1848, first convention to support women's rights and suffrage, Declaration of Sentiments, debate over right to vote (separate spheres?)
Enlightenment Liberal feminism
demand for political rights, based on natural rights, faith in rationality, necessary education, Mary Wollstonecraft, ability to reason, souls and ability to rational was same, needed education, natural rights,
men and women are not the same, why? looking for a broader transformation of society, praises the positive aspects of femininity,
Natural Rights Theory
theory that people are born with certain natural rights that are not contingent upon laws, customs or beliefs
the mother of reproductive rights, popularized term birth control, opened first birth control clinic, founded organizations that led to the creation of Planned Parenthood, 1879-1966
The Feminine Mystique
1963 book by Betty Frieden, sparked the 2nd wave feminist movement, addresses the "problem with no name"...unhappiness of women in the 1950s and 60s
Hatred of women
An irrational hostility, hatred, or fear of homosexuals.
Goals of WGS
1. to provide a framework for study; a community to study the impacts of gender practices on social, cultural, and political thought/behavior
2. to provide advocacy and social change
work within the existing system to change education and employment in an attempt to remove obstacles that prevent women from fully participating in public life through the use of education, federal and state policies as well as legal statutes.
men and women are equal, National Organization for Women, Equal Rights Amendment,
Believes that gender inequality is produced by unequal access to civil rights and social resources like education and employment based on sex
"want a whole new pie" and think it is crucial that a deeper transformation is needed with regards to the institutions covered in class (media, education, government etc.) as well as in people's heads. Tend to have a relatively fixed or biologically based idea of who a woman is and are often guilty of essentialism (treating all women with similar attributes and minimizing the differences between them)
-theory that male supremacy and the patriarchy oppress women, gained popularity in the 1960s, aims to overthrow the patriarchy to end female oppression
The Woman's Bible
2-part book by Elizabeth Cady Stanton & committee of 26 women to challenge the traditional religious orthodoxy that women are subservient to men, stresses self-development
feminist poet and essayist, brought oppression of lesbians to the poetic forefront, set out to empower other women through her writing and civil rights activism
focus on how compulsory heterosexuality and heterosexual privilege function to maintain the power in society.
National Organization for Women (NOW)
1966, founded by Betty Frieden, Pauli Murray & Shirley Chisholm, bill of rights and statement of purpose
introduced concept of 3rd wave feminism, co-founded Third Wave Fund
writer, activist, filmmaker, and lecturer whose work explores abortion, sex, bisexuality, rape, single parenthood, and women's power, third wave feminist, author of "A Day Without Feminism" & Manifesta with Amy Richards
co-author of Manifesta, voice of Ask Amy on feminist.com
believed women were an imperfect version of men with less sense of justice, one gender, triangle bodies with hot energy, inverted organs, women had sexual desire to be perfect
men and women were 2 different sexes both perfect in their own gender, not necessarily progressive though because women were lesser and didn't even have access to higher qualities
a common-law doctrine under which the legal personality of the husband covered the wife and he made all legally binding decisions, couldn't hold property, couldn't keep name, etc.
The Suffrage Movement
the movement for the right for women to vote, began in 1848 with Seneca Falls Convention until 1920 with the ratification of the 19th Amendment
The Second Sex
1949 book by Simone de Beauvoir, starting point of second wave feminism, history of women's treatment throughout history, "one is not born, but becomes a woman", distinction between sex and gender
Roe v. Wade
1973 case that legalized abortion based on right to privacy, set precedent
1873, US federal law which made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" materials through the mail, including contraceptive devices and information, targeted birth control and porn
Middle Assyrian Law #40: required women, the good women, would wear veils. Unveiled women could be used and they were available in some way
Griswold v. Connecticut
1965, married couple wanted to get contraceptives; struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives; established the right of privacy through the 4th and 9th amendment
the banding together of several interest groups for the purpose of lobbying
League of Women Voters
league formed in 1920 advocating for women's rights, among them the right for women to serve on juries and equal pay laws, Carrie Chapman Catt
5 Myths associated with feminism
(1) Feminists are angry, whiny women who exaggerate discrimination against women (2) hate men or want to be like men, and establish power over them (3) all are lesbians (4) reject motherhood, and all things feminine (5) a white, middle-class movement that draws energy away from more important problems
Debunking myths associated with feminism
(1) men as a social group demonstrate more anger than women, and women do not exaggerate the injustices. Anger is seen to be going against what we imagine to be feminine (2) Women ask men to understand how gender privilege works in men's lives (3) Accusing feminists of being lesbians is to discredit feminism and prevent women from joining the movement: lesbian baiting. Although lesbians love women this does not necessitate a dislike of men (4) Does not reject motherhood, but attempts to improve the conditions (5) Much work has been done to transform the movement into an inclusive social movement
Women's studies as a discipline
Interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning women, gender, and feminism.
Why was women's studies founded
Originated in the 1960's as a response to the absence, misrepresentation, and trivialization of women in higher education (e.g. wanted novels written by women to be included in literature courses, women mentioned in history courses for reasons other than marital/family relations, as well as female faculty members and administrators)
What is the relationship between Women's studies and the Womens movement?
Women's studies as a discipline has its origins in the second wave women's movement which focused on a commitment to personal change and to societal transformation.
questioning the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is produced, and the applications and consequences of knowledge in wider society
Legal Changes in the 1960s-1970s
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
-Provided legal rights to contraceptives
Roe v. Wade (1973)
-Provided legal right to abortion
Women's rights had roots in what movement?
What did Mary Wollstonecraft write, when did she write it, and why was it important?
"A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" (1792) which was important because it was the first expression of the demand for women's equality in response to Mott's and Stanton's seat refusal at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London (1840)
What important event for women's rights history happened in 1848 and what came out of it?
The first woman's rights convention is called by Mott and Stanton. It is held on July 20 at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, NY" (WVFV 19).
Came out of it : "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" was authored primarily by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and demanded an improvement of women's status in the family and society using language similar to that of the Declaration of Independence
What is NAWSA and what organization did it evolve into?
NAWSA- National American Woman Suffrage Association-liberal- concerned about change at a state level
continues today as the League of Women Voters but formed from the merging of NWSA and the American Woman Suffrage Association.
When did women get the right to vote and what amendment was it?
The 19th Amendment in 1920 gave women the right to vote.
1) feminism concerns equality and justice for all women, and it seeks to eliminate systems of inequality and injustice in all aspects of women's lives;
2) feminism is inclusive of all women, it celebrates women's achievements and struggles and works to provide a positive and affirming stance toward women and womanhood.
What conference was important to the translational feminism movement?
In 1995, the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women was held in Beijing, China with over 30,000 attendees where 189 governments signed the "Platform Action"; a call for concrete action to include human rights of women and girls as part of universal human rights, eradicating poverty of women, removing obstacles to women's full participation in public life and decision making, eliminating all forms of violence against women, ensuring women's access to educational and health services, and promoting actions for women's economic autonomy (self-governance)
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