116 terms

APHG Chapter 11

1) Approximately three-fourths of the world's industrial production is concentrated in four regions. Which of the following is not one of these four regions?
Eastern South America
2) The Industrial Revolution began in
Great Britain
3) The Industrial Revolution began in
the late 1700s.
4) Prior to the Industrial Revolution, industry was
5) The cottage industry system involved manufacturing
in the home.
6) The main source of power for steam engines and blast ovens is produced from
7) The most important transportation improvement in the eighteenth century was the
8) The first industries to increase production through extensive use of the steam engine were
textile and iron
10) The United Kingdom expanded industrial production in the late twentieth century
with high-tech industries to serve the European market.
12) Proximity to European consumers is the most significant industrial asset of which region?
13) The growth of manufacturing was retarded in the United States during the nineteenth century primarily because of
distance from markets.
14) Eastern North America was the continent's manufacturing center in part because it had access to the continent's
largest markets.
15) Today, New England's most significant industrial asset is its
skilled but extensive labor force.
16) Today, the most significant industrial asset of the Western Great Lakes region is its
access to the nation's transportation network. B)large market area.
17) Proximity to Russian consumers is the most significant industrial asset of which region?
18) In Russia, the Soviet government promoted new manufacturing regions
in the Urals and Kuznetsk.
19) In order to become a major industrial power, Japan had to overcome which of the following problems?
distance from consumers
20) A copper concentration mill tends to locate near a copper mine because it is a
bulk-reducing industry.
21) Fabricating plants are examples of bulk-gaining industries because
separate parts are combined to make more complex and massive products.
22) Situation costs are critical to a firm which wishes to
minimize transport costs.
23) The U.S. steel industry moved westward in the nineteenth century primarily because of better access to
iron ore.
24) Among the surviving steel plants in the United States, production concentrated in the southern Lake Michigan area has increased its share of national production, primarily because of access to .
25) Minimills are more likely than integrated steel mills to select locations because of access to
26) Central Europe offers an attractive combination of important
site and situation,less skilled but cheaper labor than Western Europe, and more expensive but much more skilled labor than Asia and Latin America.
27) Producers of automobiles select locations primarily because of access to
28) Since 1980, new U.S. automobile assembly plants have been built in the
Midwest, to minimize national distribution costs.
29) The lowest-cost form of transporting goods very long distances is by
30) A company which uses more than one mode of transport will often locate near
break-of-bulk points.
31) Significant site factors include all but which of the following?
32) Beer bottling is an example of a .
bulk-gaining industry.
33) Compared to other industries, aluminum manufacturers are more likely to locate near sources of
low-cost energy.
34) Which of these industries is most dependent on low-cost labor?
35) The U.S. Gulf Coast has become an important industrial area because of
access to oil and natural gas.
36) Mexico's maquiladora plants have an advantage of closeness to U.S. markets
but are a bit too far from most U.S. manufacturing facilities for just-in-time delivery.
38) Industrial areas outside North America and Europe have become increasingly important in recent years primarily because of
site factors.
39) Both Europe and the United States have seen interregional shifts of manufacturing, but one difference is
in Europe, government policies have encouraged relocation.
40) Steel production has declined during the 1980s and 1990s most rapidly in
the United States.
41) What Western European country has experienced the most rapid manufacturing growth since the late twentieth century? A) Denmark
B) Germany C) France
D) Spain
42) The Italian Po river basin
contains half of the country's population, but two-thirds of its industry.
has a key asset in cheaper labor compared to Europe's other industrial regions.
has inexpensive hydroelectricity.
43) What two location factors influence industries to remain in the northeastern United States and northwestern Europe?
skilled labor and rapid delivery to market
44) Spreading parts production and fabrication among many countries and communities
increases large corporations bargaining power with local governments and labor.
45) Why are Asian companies are more successful in the United States than U.S. companies are in Asia?
Asian business executives know more about U.S. culture than U.S. executives know about Asian.
46) Canada's most important industrial area is
the St. Lawrence Valley and Ontario Peninsula.
47) In contrast to fordist production, Post-Fordist production is more likely to
introduce more flexible work rules.
48) What mining region has the most varied mineral deposits of the world, with over 1,000 minerals?
the Ural mountains
49) The new international division of labor reflects the growing importance of
50) The industrial revolution in Europe diffused
from west to east
51) Russian manufacturers were more likely than American manufacturers to locate near
raw materials
52) Copper concentration is a bulk-reducing industry, because
its processed weight is less than its original weight
53) The location of a maquiladora plant is a good example of the importance of
site factors
54) Which of these industries is most dependent on low-cost labor
) A manufacturer of women's and children's underwear is more likely than a manufacturer electronic computing equipment to locate in what region of the United States?
56) Increased global industrial capacity is primarily a result of all but which of the following?
declining markets for many goods
57) The principal asset of steel mills in Europe compared to the United States is access to
government subsidies
58) By subsidizing industries such as steel and textile, governments contribute to the global problem of
59) The biggest industrial challenge for former communist countries is
unmet consumer demand
0) The biggest industrial challenge for less developed countries is
lack of access to markets
61) The main impact of the growth of regional trading blocs is
increased cooperation among countries within trading blocs
The new international division of labor reflects the growing importance for industrial location of
site factors
64) The one invention most important to the development of factories was the
steam engine.
65) Why was the Industrial Revolution delayed in Europe?
Napoleonic Wars, late nation-state formation by Germany, and French Revolution
66) Identify the dominant market center between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
67) Which industrial district is Russia's oldest?
A) Saratov B) Donetsk C) St. Petersburg
Central Industrial District
68) In which city were railways built several decades before the rest of Russia?
St. Petersburg
69) What has East Asia substituted for lack of natural resources?
large labor force
70) Manufacturing inputs consist of
energy, machinery, and services.
71) Since the 1970s, industrial output in MCDs has been stagnant for which of the following reasons?
market saturation, quality of products, and slower population growth
72) A manufacturer of women's and children's underwear is more likely than a manufacturer of electronic computing equipment to attempt to minimize the cost of
73) The biggest industrial challenge for more developed countries is
unequal distribution of industry
74) What major resource does the Volga Industrial District contain?
75) Cooperation and competition within and among trading blocs take place primarily through the actions of
multinational governments
6) Transnational corporations have transferred some work to less developed countries because of access to
77) What industrial region contains over 1,000 types of minerals, the most varied collection found in any mining region in the world?
78) A footloose industry could be conducted from
any place
79) Industry is uniformly distributed across Earth.
80) Prior to the Industrial Revolution, cottage industries were most common.
81) The major source of energy for steam engines during the Industrial Revolution was wood.
82) The dominant industrial power in the nineteenth century was Great Britain.
83) In the early days of the Industrial Revolution, engineering innovations had their greatest impact on the transportation industry.
84) During the Industrial Revolution the geographic distribution of industry changed from a large collection of home-based enterprises to large integrated firms clustered in a few locations.
5) About three-fourths of world industrial production is clustered in four regions.
) The most important industrial area in Western Europe, the Rhine-Ruhr valley, has large deposits of coal.
The optimal location for a factory manufacturing a bulk-gaining product is likely to be one that minimizes the cost of transporting the product to the market.
U.S. steel mills have always been located to minimize the transport of inputs to the factories.
China has the largest labor force employed in manufacturing.
Communications-oriented industries, like newspapers, tend to locate near their markets.
The site factor most effecting relocation of industry in the twenty-first century is labor.
Factories in more developed countries are now more likely to be suburban or rural than in urban centers.
The United States lost 20 percent of its manufacturing jobs during the first 4 years of the twenty-first century.
Most U.S. cotton textile manufacturers have moved from the mortheast to the southeast, but many of the cotton textile manufacturers remain in the northeast.

U.S. steel mills located further west because of the growing importance of the Mesabi iron ore range.

Markets have been stagnant in relatively developed countries because of low population growth.

Russian and Soviet economic planners have historically given priority to the manufacture of more consumer goods.

The term "maquiladora" came from the Spanish word "maquilar", meeaning a miller of grain.

Home-based manufacturing was known as the cottage industry system.

Transportation was important in the diffusion of the industrial revolution.

Railroads were the first major transportation system of the industrial revolution.

The first industry to develop through the invention of the steam engine was the textile industry.

France was the first country engaged in the industrial revolution.

Except for advances by the Belgians, French, and Germans, the industrial revolution did not make a significant impact elsewhere in Europe until the late 1800s.

Southern and Eastern European countries did not join the industrial revolution until the twentieth century.

The Industrial Revolution did not take off in the United States until around 1750.

Less than 10% of the earth's surface is devoted to industry

In a right-to-work state, a union can require a worker to join the union.

Boston's Route 128 is the nation's center for production of semiconductors and computers.

The four Western European industrial regions became important for industry because of their proximity to raw materials and large markets.

Situation factors involved transporting materials to and from a factory.

Land, labor, and resources are the three traditional site factors.

A bulk-reducing industry is an economic activity in which the final product weighs less than its inputs

A bulk-gaining industry makes something that gains volume or weight during production.

What are break-of-bulk points?
locations where transfer among transportation modes is possible
Why do soft-drink bottlers locate their plants near consumers?
They are bulk-gaining (or weight-gaining) industries.
Why is it cheaper for firms to sell in the United States clothing products made in Asia and shipped to the United States rather than produced directly in the United States?
lower cost labor
What are the three main site factors that influence the location of a factory?
land; labor; capital
What are the two main situation factors that influence the location of a factory?
access to inputs; access to markets
A bulk-reducing (or weight-reducing) industry is likely to locate near what factor?
source of inputs