32 terms

General Biology Chapter 1

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Characteristics of Living Things
1.Cells and Organization
2.Energy Use and Metabolism
3.Response to Environmental changes
4.Regulation and Homeostasis
5.Growth and Development
6.Reproduction
7.Biological Evolution
Cells
smallest organization of living things; atoms and larger molecules
Tissue
cells of the same type all together
organ
2 or more tissue types put together
organism
anything that contains everything that it needs to survive
population
group of organisms living together
community
a collection of populations of 2 or more species
ecosystem
interactions of the community and environment
biosphere
largest organization of living things; places on earth where living organisms exsist
energy use and metabolism
every organism uses energy to stay alive in one way or another
nutrients
compounds that can be broken down to release energy
metabolism
the breakdown and build up of various components within the cell
response to environmental changes
in order to survive, a truly living thing must be able to adapt to changes in the environment
homeostasis
process by which specific organisms can regulate their cells to maintain stable condition
feedback mechanisms
one way for an organism to maintain homeostasis
growth
getting more/bigger cells
development
gets defined and refined characteristics
mitosis
asexual reproduction; how an organism gets more cells
meiosis
process that helps generate cells for sexual production
reproduction
organisms must reproduce; organisms resemble their parents
asexual reproduction
bacteria and single celled organisms; cell division
sexual reproduction
combining two cells from different individuals to make a new organism
genes
blueprint or recipe for a particular organism; found in DNA
biological evolution
how a population of organisms are modified over many generations
natural selection
advantageous traits are passed to the next generation
vertical descent with mutation
accumulation of mutations to the genes
horizontal gene transfer(spiderman)
gene exchange form one species to another species or a different species
Taxonomy
a way to classify organisms that groups species based on their common characteristics and their ancestors
prokaryotes
bacteria and archaea
no nucleus, contain a nucleoid region
lack internal membranes
nucleoid
naked genetic material, found in prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
plants, animals protists, fungi
nucleus and internal membranes
nucleus
membrane bound pocket of DNA material