Terms in this set (54)
What kind of cells have plasma membranes?
All cells (Euk-animal, Euk-plant, Prok)
What kind of cells have cell walls?
Plants, bacteria, (some other stuff too)
Features of eukaryotes
Membrane-bound nucleus and organelles, large, complex
Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the cell
Membrane-bound, holds genetic material (DNA)
The double membrane around the nucleus
holes in the nuclear membranes for ribosomes and mRNA to go through
packaged up DNA
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
studded with ribosomes, site of protein synthesis and finishing
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
site of lipid synthesis and detoxification
Modifies proteins, packages and ships off to destinations in and outside the cell
the "receiving" side of the Golgi apparatus
the "shipping out" side of the Golgi apparatus
little membrane-covered blebs containing the material to be transported
Mitochondria - what happens here?
cellular respiration to create ATP (energy) from glucose
Mitochondria - why are they unique?
own ribosomes, own DNA, maternally transmitted
Mitochondria - who has them?
adenosine triphosphate, energy currency of the cell
How does ATP give you energy
Breaking a phosphate off of ATP creates ADP (diphosphate), releases energy
O2 + glucose --> H2O + CO2 (and ATP)
CO2 + H2O --sun energy--> O2 + glucose [converts solar energy to chemical energy]
"stomach" of the cell - has digestive enzymes and low pH. Merges with things to digest them.
The process of excreting something from a cell
The process of taking something into a cell
The movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to low concentration. Spontaneous, no energy is required, independent of different molecules.
Special diffusion referring to the movement of free water molecules from areas where there is more free water (not bound to solute) to areas where there is less free water
Partial charges of a water molecule
slight + on hydrogen ends, slight - on oxygen end
a dissolved substance
the liquid the solute is dissolved in
2 ways that water can move in/out of cells
direct diffusion or through aquaporins ("water pores")
A solution with the same amount of dissolved solutes to the one you are comparing it to
A solution with more dissolved solutes than the one you are comparing it to
A solution with less dissolved solutes than the one you are comparing it to
Diffusion that is "helped" by proteins that span the membrane (ex: channel protein)
Transport of a solute across a membrane AGAINST diffusion. Requires energy expenditure.
Gap 1 - Growing, making organelles, doing "cell stuff"
DNA synthesis (copying DNA)
Gap 2 - Double checking duplicated DNA for errors, doing "cell stuff"
Gap 0 - waiting period for cells, located off G1
The organized process of dividing DNA for two future cells
Cell physically splits in half
Why do multi-cellular organisms go through cell division?
Grow in size, repair damage, develop a fertilized egg into an organism
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
"Stop" signs that make the cell pause to ensure everything is okay before going to the next stage
Signals for the cell cycle
Default signal is STOP unless they get the go-ahead. Go-aheads are growth factors, such as HGH or food
Reasons why cancer can ignore the cell cycle
Makes its own growth factor, ignores the need for growth factor, ignores checkpoints, mutations in the checkpoints
What is mitosis?
The careful arrangement and division of cellular chromosomes just prior to cell division
5 phases of mitosis
Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Any phase that isn't mitosis. Nuclear envelope intact, DNA not condensed into visible chromosomes.
Nuclear envelope intact, chromosomes become visible, sister chromatids begin to pair up.
Nuclear envelope fragments, microtubules reach into nuclear area, centrosomes migrate to the poles
Centrosomes at opposite poles, microtubules reach from centrosomes to the center of each sister chromatid. Chromosomes line up at metaphase plate
Microtubules shorten and pull toward the centrosomes, Sister chromatids separate and are now called chromosomes. Cell elongates
Nuclear envelope reforms, chromosomes uncondense, microtubules depolymerize.