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Mycogenes and Candida 1/31/2017
Terms in this set (36)
What are the two forms of candidiasis infections?
Chronic mucocutaneous or cutaneous/mucocutaneous infections
What is the most common species of candida? Are most candida infections exogenous or endogenous?
C. albicans; most are endogenous
In normal flora, how does candida albicans grow? In invasive disease? What is the diagnostic test for it?
Yeast in normal flora; hypae and pseudohypae in invasive; germ tubes
What is Candida the fungal species most often responsible for (2 different occurrences)?
Blood stream infections or fungal infections in immunocompromised individual
What is a growing concern for C. Glabrata and C. krusei?
What are predisposing factors for candida infection?
, older patients, immundeficient/immunosuppressed patients, and catheters/IV lines
Where does candida set up infections?
Kidney, brain, liver, skin, and eye
Are antigens or antibodies to candida significant?
Antigen significant for systemic infection
What is the common treatment for systemic candida? What is used for resistant candida?
Fluconazole, amphotericin B and echinocandins; posaconazole
What are risk factors for candida fungemia?
Corticosteroid use, neutropenia, or antifungal prophylaxis
What kind of pathogens are fungi?
Opportunistic and nosocomial pathogens
How do antibiotics act on fungal infections?
Can enhance fungal infection
What is an important component of cell wall of fungi that can be targeted by antifungals?
What is the main sterol of fungal cell membranes?
What are the 4 types of fungi?
Mold (filamentous), Yeast (oval-shaped), Dimorphic (grow as either mold or yeast), and dematiaceous (brown or black pigmented)
What is phaeohyphomycosis?
Infection caused by dematiaceous fungi (brown or black pigmented)
What are hyphae? What are the two types?
Filaments or tubular structures of molds; septate (with cross walls) or coenocytic (without septa)
What are pseudohyphae?
Hyphae-like structure formed by incomplete budding of yeast cells
What are mycelium?
Mass of intertwined hyphae
What are conidia? What are condiophores, and which species has these? What are sprangiospores, and which species has these?
Asexual spores; chains of spores, and aspergillus; pockets of spores, and mucormycetes
What are blastoconidia?
Budding yeast cells
What are microconidia and macroconidia?
Single or multi celled conidia
How are arthroconidia formed?
Fragmentation of hyphae
What are endospores?
Spores produced within a spherule
What is the name for fungal forms producing sexual spores? Producing asexual spores?
What are the 4 clinical classifications of fungi?
Superficial mycoses, cutaneous mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses, and systemic mycoses
How are most fungi acquired: person to person or from the environment?
Which kind of mycoses does malassezia furfur (tinea versicolor) cause?
Which kind of mycoses do dermatophytes (ringworm) cause?
What kind of mycoses do sporotrichosis cause?
What kind of mycoses do blastomyces dermatititdis, coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum cause?
What kind of mycoses do aspergillus, candida, Cryptococcus neoformans, muormycetes, and pneumocystis jirovecii cause?
Opportunistic systemic mycoses
What form are all endemic mycoses? How severe are the infections?
Dimorphic fungi (inhale mold form, yeast form grows in tissue); mild or asymptomatic infections (unless immunocompromised)
Who are at risk for systemic mycoses?
HIV, transplant, cancer/leukemia, diabetics, patients on long term antibiotics, catheterized patients, burn patients, asthma patients, and patients receiving corticosteroid treatment
What are some important ways to diagnose fungal infections?
Detection microscopically, confirm by culture,
, and PCR/amp-based tests
What are the important stains for mycoses?
KOH prep, Calcofluor white (with KOH),
Gomori's methenamine silver
, or gram stains
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