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51 terms

World History Chapter 19

Glencoe World History
STUDY
PLAY
capital
money available for investment
Enclosure movement
in Great Britain during the 1700s, Parlamentary decree that allowed fencing off of common lands, forcing many peasants to move to town
Entrepreneur
person interested in finding new business opportunities and new ways to make profits
Cottage Industry
method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes
Puddling
process in which coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high quality iron
Industrial capitalism
economic system based on industrial production or manufacturing
Socialism
system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production
conservatism
political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion
Principle of intervention
idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments
Liberalism
a political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties - the basic rights of all people - should be protected
universal male suffrage
the right of all males to vote in elections
multinational state
a state in which people of many nationalities live
militarism
reliance on military strength
kaiser
German for "caesar," the title of the emperors of the Second German Empire
plebiscite
a popular vote
emancipation
the act of setting free
abolitionism
a movement to end slavery
secede
Withdraw
romanticism
an intellectual movement that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century in reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment; it stressed feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing
secularization
indifference to or rejection of religion or religious consideration
organic evolution
the principle set forth by Darwin that every plant or animal has evolved, or changed, over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms of life to more complex forms
natural selection
the principle set forth by Darwin that some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others, in popular terms, survival of the fittest
realism
mid-nineteenth century movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray lower- and middle-class life as it actually was
James Watt
Scottish engineer who, in 1782, made changes to the steam engine which enabled it to drive machinery to spin cotton, thus improving production
Manchester
rich cotton-manufacturing city in England
Liverpool
thriving port in England
Robert Fulton
American inventor who built the first paddle-wheel steamboat in 1807
Robert Owen
Utopian socialist who set up a flourishing community in New Lanark, Scotland
Congress of Vienna
Peace Treaty designed by heads of European powers in 1814 (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia) which rearranged territories after Napoleon's defeat to form a new balance of power
Klemens von Metternich
Austrian foreign minister; most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
city in Austria that hosted the Congress of Vienna in 1814
Bill of Rights
American written statement of fundamental rights and privileges for an individual
Louis-Napoleon
elected president of France's Second Republic in 1848 after the French Revolution; the nephew of Napoleon
German Confederation
Thirty-eight independent German states recognized by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 of which Austria and Prussia had the greatest powers
Prague
city in Bohemia (now the Czech Republic)
Piedmont
northern Italian state
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot who unified Italy
Otto von Bismarck
Prussian prime minister in 1860s who governed Prussia without parliament's approval and forced war first with the Austrians and then the French (Franco-Prussian War in 1870) where France was forced to relinquish Alsace and Lorraine. Prussia was then the strongest power in Europe.
Alsace
province of France turned over to Prussia after the Franco-Prussian War in 1871
Lorraine
province of France turned over to Prussia after the Franco-Prussian War in 1871
Queen Victoria
British queen from 1837-1901 with the longest reign in English history who helped to stabilize the economy with continued improvements as a result of the Industrial Revolution. In 1876, she also assumed the title of Empress of India.
Budapest
capital of Hungary
Czar Alexander II
ruler of Russia who freed the serfs in 1861
Ludwig van Beethoven
German composer known for his classical symphonies; considered one of the greatest composers who continued to compose after he became deaf
Louis Pasteur
French biologist whose discovery of microorganisms in fermentation led to pasteurization and who also proposed the germ theory of disease which advanced modern scientific medical practices
Charles Darwin
British scientist who formulated the theory of evolution by natural selection
Charles Dickens
famous British novelist who wrote realistic novels focusing on the lower and middle classes of England's early Industrial Age; wrote Oliver Twist and David Copperfield
Staples
the major food product for a country in Great Britain it was potatoes.
England-birthplace-industrial movement
They were the birthplace of the industrial movement because they had very good farming techniques, they had a lot of money, and new machines and factories. They also had a lot of peasants that started the industrial working class and they had a lot of natural resources
Spinning Jenny
one of the reasons the cottage industry falls; it also increases the speed to produce a product
The Rocket
the most efficient train for its time it carried tons of product and traveled 16mph