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in Great Britain during the 1700s, Parlamentary decree that allowed fencing off of common lands, forcing many peasants to move to town
process in which coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high quality iron
system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production
political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion
Principle of intervention
idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments
a political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties - the basic rights of all people - should be protected
an intellectual movement that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century in reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment; it stressed feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing
the principle set forth by Darwin that every plant or animal has evolved, or changed, over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms of life to more complex forms
the principle set forth by Darwin that some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others, in popular terms, survival of the fittest
mid-nineteenth century movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray lower- and middle-class life as it actually was
Scottish engineer who, in 1782, made changes to the steam engine which enabled it to drive machinery to spin cotton, thus improving production
Congress of Vienna
Peace Treaty designed by heads of European powers in 1814 (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia) which rearranged territories after Napoleon's defeat to form a new balance of power
elected president of France's Second Republic in 1848 after the French Revolution; the nephew of Napoleon
Thirty-eight independent German states recognized by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 of which Austria and Prussia had the greatest powers
Otto von Bismarck
Prussian prime minister in 1860s who governed Prussia without parliament's approval and forced war first with the Austrians and then the French (Franco-Prussian War in 1870) where France was forced to relinquish Alsace and Lorraine. Prussia was then the strongest power in Europe.
British queen from 1837-1901 with the longest reign in English history who helped to stabilize the economy with continued improvements as a result of the Industrial Revolution. In 1876, she also assumed the title of Empress of India.
Ludwig van Beethoven
German composer known for his classical symphonies; considered one of the greatest composers who continued to compose after he became deaf
French biologist whose discovery of microorganisms in fermentation led to pasteurization and who also proposed the germ theory of disease which advanced modern scientific medical practices
famous British novelist who wrote realistic novels focusing on the lower and middle classes of England's early Industrial Age; wrote Oliver Twist and David Copperfield
They were the birthplace of the industrial movement because they had very good farming techniques, they had a lot of money, and new machines and factories. They also had a lot of peasants that started the industrial working class and they had a lot of natural resources
one of the reasons the cottage industry falls; it also increases the speed to produce a product
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