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116 terms

Humanities Semester 1 Final Review

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significant art contents of the Lascaux caves
cave paintings of hunting scenes
New Kingdom Pharaoh advocating monotheism; his queen was Nefertiti
Akhenaton (Amenhotep)
hero of the most famous Sumerian Epic; quested for the meaning of life
Gilgamesh
system of writing (wedge shaped) used by ancient Sumerians
Cuneiform
author of the law code of ancient Babylon
Hammurabi
palace in the most important city of Minoan civilization
Knossos
author of the Iliad and the Odyssey
Homer
Greek word for city; used for the independent city-states
Polis
male standing statue, usually nude, made in early Archaic Greece
Kouros
three orders of columns in Greek architecture
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
Greek lyric poet, first woman to leave a literary record; from Lesbos
Sappho
First Greek historian ("father of history"); author of the History of the Persian Wars
Herodotus
Greek word for pride or arrogance
Hubris
art medium of Myron and Phidias who created the high classical blend of realism and idealism
Sculpture
tragedies were written by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and ...
Euripides
part of Athens where temples were build on a high bluff
Acropolis
Athenian leader who established democracy
Pericles
the war Athens fought with Sparta was called the
Peloponnesian War
the building from the Classical Period that embodies the Greek Ideal
Parthenon
Thucydides wrote
History of the Peloponnesian Wars
which famous Greek philosopher was executed and what for
Socrates...treason, corruption of youth
3 works of Plato
Apology, Republic, Phaedo
student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great
Aristotle
Alexander's father was --- ,and he was assassinated in 336 B.C.
Philip of Macedon
the later period of Greek art (after Classical) showing more emotion is called
Hellenistic
not known for its originality, Rome's strength was in ____ and ____ elements of other cultures
absorbing and assimilating
the first period of Roman government
Kingdom
the second period of Roman government that ended with the assassination of Caesar
Republic
the third period of Roman government
Empire
Epicureanism
rejected divine force, preached against superstition, the best life was one of pleasure
Stoicism
trust in divine providence and reason, desire only what is under your control, virtue, condoned suicide
in 79 A.D. __erupted
Mount Vesuvius
Roman city destroyed by a volcano
Pompeii
author of Meditations
Marcus Aurelius
(A.D. 121-180)
author of the Aeneid
Virgil
Roman author of scathing satires
Juvenal
(A.D. 60-130)
author of Natural History (dedicated to Emperor Vespasian) also wrote letters, one described the __and was his last
Pliny the Younger
(A.D. 62-114)
the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, he was an eye witness from a boat in the Bay of Naples
pax romana
time of "Roman Peace" 1st and 2nd centuries A.D., established by Caesar Augustus
ara pacis
Altar of Augustan peace
Via Flaminia
ancient Roman road from the city north through the mountains to the Adriatic Sea
singular of fora, building in Rome
Forum
3 features of the Pantheon
domed, dedicated to all god, lighted with an oculus in the roof, portico with granite columns
what the cities of Joppa and Caesarea have in common
on the coast of Israel
river that connects the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea
Jordan
what Masada is famous for
Jewish rebels held the Romans off in the mountain fortress for 2 years
Old Testament historical periods:
Period of the Patriarchs
Period of the ______________________
Period of the Conquest
The United Monarchy
divided Kingdom and _______________
The Return
Exodus, Exile
the word "bible" means
book
the Bible is a moral guide not a philosophical treatise (true or false)
true
having one god
monotheism
story of the life of Jesus is in 4 books called the
Gospels
the gospels were written by
Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John
Saul of Tarsus was later called __ and known for...
Paul, Missionary work
underground cemeteries
Catacombs
subjects of early Christian art
good shepherd, mother and child, miracles
why Crucifixion was not a subject in early Christian art
not attractive to converts
first Roman emperor to officially embrace Christianity
Constantine
why fish are significant symbols in Christianity
Greek word for Fish which is an acronym for "Jesus Christ, God's Son, Savior"
the "City of God" was written by
Augustine of Hippo
was Augustine of Hippo's view of history linear or cyclical? Why is that important?
Linear- In a straight line from God and ends at the last judgment, rejects cyclical Pagan notions
(city) the center of Imperial life in the Roman Empire in the early 5th c.?
Byzantium
2 famous rulers in Byzantium were ___ and __
Justinian and Theodora
Justinian's legal achievement
Organize and codify Roman law
Justinian's architectural achievements
Hagia Sophia
name given to the sequences of the various parts of the worship service
liturgy
Constantinople fell to ____ this lead to...
the Turks, the city becoming Muslim and Hagia Sophia a mosque, city renamed Istanbul
city in Italy that became the center of the church and empire for a while
Ravenna
small pieces of stone used to make a mosaic
Tesserae
how the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna differs from the traditional basilica design
it is an octagon and not cruciform like most basilica-styled churches, it has a short nave
inspired Charlemagne's church at Aachen?
San Vitale in Ravenna
difference between a church and a cathedral?
Cathedrals have Bishops
define the term Icon
painting of a religious figure used for public worship
define the term iconoclast
someone who engages in the destruction of religious symbols or established dogma or beliefs
the trivium quadrivium were
courses of study, heart of Medieval school curriculum
precise, rounded form of lettering sponsored by Charlemagne
Carolingian
monasticism comes from the Greek Monos meaning
alone
asceticism means
denial of comforts for the purpose of focused devotion
Pope Gregory I contributed to the music of the Catholic Church by codifying its chants; later called ___ chants, in honor of his work.
Gregorian
a capella means
without musical accompaniment
chansons de geste are
songs of deeds, stories of heroes, especially Charlemagne
three themes of Everyman
death comes for every man, earthly things abandon the dying, the importance of the sacraments, good deeds are what stay with you
the poem that celebrates a battle between the Frankish army and a Muslim force at the Spanish border is
Song of Roland
ivory carvings were often used for
book covers
Romanesque architecture saw a marked increase in the use of
heavy stone arches
(city) from 1150 to 1300, the center of Western civilization was
Paris
troubadours were
singers of secular songs
universities in gothic times primarily trained
administrators
the Divine Comedy was written by
Dante Alighieri from Florence
Gothic translates as
barbarous, rude, not following classical models
the central cathedral in Paris is
Notre Dame
Chaucer wrote
Canterbury Tales
Boccaccio wrote
Decameron
Saint Thomas Aquinas tried to reconcile __ and __
reason and revelation, the human and the supernatural
a guild is
a fraternal society of craftsmen or merchants
the aisle that goes around the apse and behind the high altar is called the
ambulatory
thin walls & stained-glass windows were made possible by
buttresses
early churches and later cathedrals were called cruciform because
they were in the form of a cross
space in the ceiling formed by cris-crossing arches
Vault
gargoyles were used for
drainage and to scare away demons
the part of a church one enters before going into the nave
narthex
both Boccaccio and Chaucer satirized
greed and corruption in the church
Petrarch's literary reputation is based primarily on his
Sonnets (songs)
English and Italian sonnets differ in that
English sonnets end with a couplet
who...
had a deep knowledge of Latin literature
was an important civil servant
made a translation of the "Romance of the Rose"
served as a customs agent
Chaucer
Cimabue's Crucifixion is notable for
realism and sophistication
one of Giotto's greatest contributions was his
sense of depth and perspective
Simone Martini was willing to sacrifice naturalism to
surface brilliance
Duomo is the Italian word for
Cathedral
flagellants were
people who whipped themselves out of religious devotion; often hysterical about catastrophe
During the late 1300s, the papacy was moved from Rome to _ in _
Avignon, France
when the papacy moved to Avignon, the time period was called
The Great Schism
the love of Petrarch's life was the lady he called
Laura
Decameron is Greek for _ days.
Ten days
treatise by Christine de Pisan
The Book of the City of Ladies
painters of the Italo-Byzantine tradition
Nicola and Giovanni Pisano
painters of the International Style
Melchior Broederlam, Limbourg brothers,
Sienese painters
Duccio, Simone Martini, Ambrogio Lorenzetti