Chapter 42: The American People Face a New Century
1. The U.S. pioneered the techniques of mass democracy.
2. Much of the world seems to emulate all of the following icons of American youth culture exceptHollywood stars.
3. The leading firm in the shift to the economy of mass consumerism was General Motors.
4. Occupations that the new communication tools threatened to wile out include all of the following except teachers.
5. During the past two decades, the gap between the rich and the poor in the United States widened.
6. The gap between the rich and the poor widened in the 1980s and 1990s for all of the following reasons except tax policies of the Carter and Clinton administrations.
7. The group most profoundly affected by the great economic changes of the late twentieth century was women.
8. By the 1900s, one of the most astonishing trends for women in the job market was the employment of mothers.
9. Despite numerous victories, feminists during the 1980s continued to be frustrated for all of these reasons except that women continued to be barred from holding high-level, high-prestige positions.
10. One reason that many women remained in low-skilled, low-prestige, and low-paying occupations was that they bore more of the burdens of parenthood than men.
11. By the 1990s the traditional family unit was disintegrating because the divorce rate had increased, the number of single-parent households had risen, parent-substitutes had assumed the role of child-rearing, and the family no longer served many of its traditional social functions.
12. By the 1990s, the trend for people living in poverty showed a decrease in poverty for those over age 65.
13. The money used to provide Social Security payments to retirees comes from Social Security taxes paid by current workers.
14. In terms of immigration patterns, the 1980s and 1990s witnessed the heaviest influx of immigrants in America's experience.
15. The New Immigrants of the 1980s and 1990s came to America primarily in search of jobs and economic opportunity.
16. The Hispanic immigrant population maintained their language and culture better than most previous immigrant groups because of their large numbers and geographic concentration.
17. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 attempted to penalize employers for hiring illegal immigrants.
18. By the 1990s, the foreign-born population accounted for (about 15) percent of the U.S.' population.
19. Studies show that illegal immigrants pay more dollars in taxes than they claim in welfare payments.
20. The most populous group of Latinos in the U.S. comes from Mexico.
21. The group with the highest household income is Asian-Americans.
22. Douglas Wilder was the first African-American to serve as astate governor.
23. One reason Black politicians became more successful by the 1990s is they appealed to a wide variety of voters.
24. Of the 2.5 million American Indians counted by the 2000 census, approximately (50 percent) lived away from the reservations in cities.
25. America's "urban age," when a majority of the population lived in cities rather than in rural areas, small towns, or suburbs, lasted from approximately 1920-1995.
26. The major racial disturbances of the 1990s occurred in Los Angeles.
27. One of the major problems affecting African-Americans in the late twentieth century was the growing gap between an affluent black middle class and the poor in inner cities.
28. The first significant numbers of Mexican-American immigrants to the U.S. came during the era of the Mexican Revolution, 1910-1920.
29. It was often considered a badge of honor to adopt American citizenship is not among the reasons that Mexican immigrants were for a long time slow to become American citizens.
30. The West became the subject of a rich literary outpouring because of the population shift westward.
31. After World War II, the art capital of the world was New York.
32. By the 1990s, the percentage of college students in the 25-34 age group was approximately 25 percent.
33. August Wilson was not among the notable African-American writers of the period since the 1930s.
34. Frank McCourt was not among prominent American playwrights or musical theater creators in the late 20th century.
35. The leading painting movement in the immediate post-World War II period was abstract expressionism.
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Tuesday, April 24, 2012
Chapter 41: America Confronts the Post-Cold War Era
1. The Branch Davidians were a fundamentalist sect assaulted by the federal government.
2. In the 1992 national elections, Democratic candidate Bill Clinton campaigned as a "new Democrat" who proposed to move away from his party's traditional liberalism.
3. Relations with America's allies Germany and France were not among the areas where President Clinton's foreign policy stumbled in the first years of his presidency.
4. Two of Clinton's early political blunders occurred in the areas of gays in the military and health care.
5. A widespread public attitude of the early 1990s that affected many areas of politics and society was disillusionment and distrust of the federal government.
6. President Clinton aroused the hostility of liberals within his own party when he signed the Welfare Reform Bill.
7. After they gained control of both houses of Congress in the 1994 mid-term elections, the Republicans overreached with conservative policies that bred a backlash favoring President Clinton.
8. President Clinton's approach to the controversial policy of affirmative action was a plea to "mend it, not end it."
9. Bill Clinton's primary political advantage throughout his two terms of office was the tremendously prosperous economy.
10. Relations with America's allies Germany and France was not among the areas where President Clinton's foreign policy stumbled in the first years of his presidency.
11. President Clinton attempted to promote peace negotiations and better relations among all of the following except China and Taiwan.
12. The two articles of impeachment passed by the House of Representatives against President Clinton charged him with perjury and obstruction of justice.
13. President Clinton's primary political legacy was that he consolidated the Reagan-Bush revolution by encouraging reduced expectations of government.
14. One highly unusual issue in the 2000 presidential campaign between Al Gore and George W. Bush was how to spend the huge federal budget surpluses.
15. The Supreme Court's ruling prohibiting further recounting of Florida's votes and awarding the 2000 election to George W. Bush was based on a finding that Florida's inconsistent standards for evaluating ballots violated the equal protection clause of the Constitution.
16. In his campaign for the presidency in 2000, George W. Bush promised to bring reconciliation after the sharp partisan divisions of the Clinton years.
17. Appointing extreme conservatives to the Supreme Court was not among the polarizing conservative policies that George W. Bush pursued when he assumed the presidency.
18. The original hoe of Osama bin Ladin, the organizer of Al Qaeda and presumed organizer of the September 11 attacks was Saudi Arabia.
19. The new cabinet-level agency charged with protecting America against foreign terrorist attacks was the Department of Homeland Security.
20. The USA-Patriot Act provided for, among other things, the detention and deportation of immigrants suspected of terrorism.
21. To President George W. Bush, "the axis of evil" that menaced American security consisted of the nations of Iran, Iraq, and Libya.
22. Among Bush's advisors who pushed most strongly for the invasion of Iraq were Vice President Richard Cheney and administration "neoconservatives."
23. After ousting Saddam Hussein from power, the U.S. Military in Iraq was faced with violent resistance from Iraqi insurgents and foreign militants drawn to the country.
24. In two affirmative action cases involving the University of Michigan decided in 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that numerical formulas for minority admission were unacceptable but flexible individually-based procedures were constitutional.
25. In 2003 California voters used the 100-year old procedure of (recall) to select a new governor, Arnold Schwarzenegger.
26. In June 2004, the United States handed over (political power and limited sovereignty) to the new interim government of Iraq.
27. The primary issue that enabled Bill Clinton to defeat President Bush and Ross Perot in the 1992 elections was Bush's management of a seriously slumping economy.
28. One of Bill Clinton's few early successes in advancing his reform agenda during his first term was the Brady gun control bill.
29. The leader of the right-wing movement that won a sweeping victory for Republicans in the 1994 Congressional elections was Newt Gingrich.
30. Facing a Republican Congress during his second term, Bill Clinton embraced more cautious and conservative policies, including notably his support for a welfare reform bill.
31. The Clinton foreign policy in Africa, the Balkans, and China was marked by great caution and a reluctance to engage American diplomatic or military power.
32. The two charges on which President Clinton was impeached and then acquitted after a Senate trial in January and February 1999 were perjury before a grand jury and obstruction of justice.
33. As President, Clinton's legacy would likely include consolidating the Reagan-Bush revolution of lowered expectations for government's ability to solve social ills.
34. The razor-thin election of 2000 between George W. Bush and Al Gore was finally resolved when the U.S. Supreme Court ended further vote recounts in Florida, giving Bush the electoral victory.
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Chapter 40: The Resurgence of Conservatism
1. In the 1980 national elections, Edward Kennedy challenged incumbent President Carter for the nomination of the Democratic party.
2. Liberal Democrats complained that Jimmy Carter had removed regulatory controls from major industries.
3. Edward Kennedy's campaign to take the presidential nomination away from Jimmy Carter in 1980 was handicapped by lingering suspicions about his involvement in an automobile accident in which a young woman was killed.
4. The "new right" movement that helped to elect Ronald Reagan was spearheaded by evangelical Christians.
5. Many of the new right activists were most concerned about cultural or social issues.
6. Birth control was not a primary concern for the new right.
7. The neoconservatives of the 1980s believed in all of the following except détente with the Soviet Union.
8. Ronald Reagan was similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt in that both men championed the "common man" against vast, impersonal menaces.
9. Ronald Reagan differed from Franklin D. Roosevelt in that Roosevelt branded big business as the enemy of the common man, while Reagan depicted big government as the foe.
10. Ronald Reagan began to abandon his liberal New Deal political philosophy and to espouse a conservative, antigovernment line when he became a spokesman for General Electric.
11. The strong "tax revolt" against extensive government programs and spending was spurred by the passage of Proposition 13 in California.
12. Despite his failure in the White House, President Jimmy Carter earned widespread admiration in his post-presidential years for his humanitarian and human rights activities.
13. Ronald Reagan's essential domestic goal as president was to dismantle the welfare state and shrink the size of the federal government.
14. Ronald Reagan planned to reduce the size of government by shrinking the federal budget and lower taxes.
15. Conservative Democrats who helped Ronald Reagan to pass his budget and tax-cutting legislation were called boll weevils.
16. Besides cutting the federal budget, Reagan's other main domestic initiative when he took office was cut taxes by about 25 percent.
17. Ronald Reagan's "supply side" economic advisors assured him that the combination of budgetary discipline and tax reduction would do all of the following except produce a recession-proof economy.
18. The first results of Reagan's supply-side economics in 1982 was a sharp recession and rise in unemployment.
19. The term "yuppies" was slang applied to young people who volunteered for service in the inner city.
20. The immediate consequence of President Reagan's new economic policies was a deep though temporary economic recession.
21. In the 1980s, for the first time in the 20th century, income gaps widened between the richest and the poorest Americans.
22. One consequence of the record-high deficits and high interest rates of the 1980s was a soaring value for the dollar.
23. Some economists believe that the economic upturn in the 1980s was the result of massive military expenditures.
24. To President Reagan, "the focus of evil in the modern world" was the Soviet Union.
25. The first woman to receive the vice-presidential nomination of a major political party was Geraldine Ferraro.
26. For the Soviet Union's new policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) to work, it was essential that the Cold War end.
27. The Iran-contra investigations revealed Ronald Reagan as a president who napped through cabinet meetings.
28. The greatest increase in the national debt occurred during Ronald Reagan's eight years in office.
29. In 1986 Congress passed legislation mandating a balanced budget by 1991.
30. Ronald Reagan's highest political objective as president was the containment and then shrinkage of the welfare state.
31. The "new right" developed many of it tactical approaches by imitating the methods of the New Left.
32. The first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court was Sandra Day O'Connor.
33. In response to China's crushing of its prodemocracy movement, the U.S. under George Bush maintained normal relations with China.
34. The Democrats' hopes for the 1988 election rose sharply because of major scandals in the Reagan administration involving the Iran-Contra affair and savings-and-loan banks.
35. "Solidarity" was a massive working-class labor union of Polish dissidents.
36. Israel badly strained its bonds of friendship with the U.S. by failing to protect American troops in Lebanon adequately.
37. In 1983 President Reagan sent U.S. marines to (Lebanon) as part of an international peacekeeping force; many of them died in a terrorist attack.
38. President Reagan came to be labeled the "Teflon president" because he seemed always to be able to avoid blame for failed policies.
39. During Reagan's presidency, U.S. troops invaded Grenada.
40. The issue that dominated Reagan's second term was foreign policy.
41. As one consequence of the demise of the Soviet Union, long-suppressed ethnic and racial hatreds flared in the former Soviet republics.
42. Modern conservatism springs from a disapproval of priorities and strategies from the Great society.
43. Seizing control of colleges and universities was not among the ways that the "New Right" of the 1980s imitated the tactics and approaches of the "New Left" of the 1960s.
44. The Supreme Court cases of Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood v. Casey permitted states to place restrictions on abortion.
45. Among the Democrats whom Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis defeated for the party's nomination to run against George Bush in 1988 were Gary Hart and Jesse Jackson.
46. In response to the collapse of the Soviet Union, President George H.W. Bush called for a "new world order" where democracies would reign supreme and diplomacy would replace weaponry.
47. The U.S. joined its allies in the Persian Gulf War in order to roll back Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
48. The result of the Persian Gulf War was that Kuwait was liberated but Saddam Hussein stayed in power.
49. The explosive Senate hearings that nearly prevented Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas from being confirmed involved charges that Thomas was guilty of sexual harassment.
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Sunday, April 22, 2012
Chapter 39: The Stalemated Seventies
1. One reason for the decline of American workers' productivity during the 1970s was the general shift in the economy from manufacturing to services.
2. By the early 1970s, the post-World War II economic boom had crested as a result of all of the following except the economic recovery of Japan and Germany.
3. The high inflation rate of the 1970s stemmed primarily from Lyndon Johnson's refusal to raise taxes for spending on social-welfare programs and the Vietnam War.
4. The Nixon Doctrine proclaimed that the U.S. would honor its existing defense commitment, but that in the future its allies would have to fight their own wars without large numbers of American troops.
5. Perhaps Nixon's most valuable asset as he began his presidency in 1969 was his expertise in foreign affairs.
6. President Nixon's policy of "Vietnamization" of the war in Vietnam called for a gradual handover of the ground war to the South Vietnamese.
7. Richard Nixon's Vietnam policy included all of the following except increased American troop commitments.
8. The American armed forces in Vietnam were composed largely of the least privileged young Americans.
9. The (26th) Amendment (lowered) the voting age to (18)
10. The Pentagon Papers, published in 1971, documented the North Vietnamese attack in the Gulf of Tonkin.
11. President Nixon's chief foreign-policy adviser was Henry Kissinger.
12. Richard Nixon's policy of détente ushered in an ear of relaxed tensions between the U.S. and the two leading communist powers, China and the Soviet Union.
13. The decisions of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren reflected its deep concern for the individual.
14. In Griswold vs. Connecticut, the Supreme Court upheld a married couple's right to use contraceptives based on the right to privacy.
15. Critics of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren complained that the Court was ignoring the Constitution in favor of its own social values.
16. When it came to welfare programs, Richard Nixon supported significant expansion in many areas.
17. Richard Nixon's Philadelphia Plan required construction trade unions to establish timetables and goals for hiring black apprentices.
18. The difference between Lyndon Johnson's affirmative action programs and those of Richard Nixon was that Johnson intended to help individuals, but Nixon conferred privileges on groups.
19. All of the following are legacies of Richard Nixon's presidency except the Food Stamp program.
20. To control creeping inflation in the early 1970s, President Nixon imposed a ninety-day wage-and-price freeze.
21. As president, Richard Nixon succeeded in implementing the Supplemental Security Income program.
22. George McGovern, the Democratic nominee for the presidency in 1972, alienated the traditional working-class backbone of the Democratic party by appealing to racial minorities, feminists, and youth.
23. George McGovern, the Democratic party's presidential nominee in 1972, appealed most strongly to the antiwar movement.
24. The Watergate scandals caused by the actions of Richard Nixon's staff in the 1972 presidential campaign involved all of the following except ballot stuffing.
25. As part of the cease-fire agreement in Vietnam in 1973, the U.S. was to withdraw all of its troops from Vietnam.
26. Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign in 1973 after being accused of accepting bribes.
27. During the Senate Watergate hearings, one of the most damaging revelations for Richard Nixon was that his conversations in person and on the telephone had been recorded on tape.
28. The 1973 War Powers Act required the president to report to Congress any commitment American troops.
29. As a result of Richard Nixon's aerial bombing of neutral Cambodia in 1973, the Cambodian economy was ruined and its politics revolutionized.
30. As a result of U.S. support for Israel in 1973 when it was attacked by Egypt and Syria, Arab nations placed an embargo on oil to America.
31. In an effort to counter OPEC, the U.S. took the lead in forming the International Energy Agency.
32. Nixon tried to resist giving his taped conversations to the special prosecutor and the Congress by claiming that he had executive privilege (confidentiality).
33. The most controversial action of Gerald Ford's presidency was pardoning Nixon for any known or unknown crimes he had committed during the Nixon presidency.
34. The Helsinki accords, signed by Gerald Ford and leaders of thirty-four nations, pledge signatories to guarantee certain basic human rights.
35. The people of the U.S. had provided just about everything for South Vietnam except the will to win the war.
36. In the Vietnam conflict, the U.S. lost respect in the eyes of foreigners, confidence in its military prowess, economic power, and the war
37. The one major social movement born in the 1960s that regained and gathered momentum in the 1970s and after was the feminist movement.
38. Title IX was passed by Congress in 1972 to prohibit *** discrimination in any federally funded education program or activity.
39. The proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), passed by Congress in 1972 and eventually ratified by 35 states, stated the following: "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on the basis of ***."
40. The Supreme Court case of Roe v. Wade declared state laws prohibiting abortion were unconstitutional because they violated a woman's constitutional right to privacy in her own person.
41. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) failed to be ratified by the needed 38 states largely because an antifeminist backlash led by Phyllis Schlafly stirred sufficient opposition to stop it.
42. The most explosive racial controversy of the 1970s was over busing.
43. The effect of the Supreme Court ruling in Milliken vs. Bradley that integration did not have to take place across school district lines was to reinforce the division between poorer, minority inner city schools and nearly all white suburbs.
44. The Supreme Court in the Bakke case held that racial quotas were unconstitutional but race could be taken into account as one factor in college admissions.
45. American Indian activists brought attention to their cause in the 1970s by seizing Alcatraz Island and Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
46. The major goal successfully pursued by Indian civil rights activists in the 1970s was a recognition of the semi-sovereign status of the various Indian tribes under American law.
47. The first wave of Vietnamese refugees who came to the United States in the immediate aftermath of the Vietnam War were first forced into "assimilation cams" scattered across the country.
48. A primary goal of both the first and second wave of Vietnamese refugees was to keep their large extended families together.
49. James Earl (Jimmy) Carter enjoyed considerable popularity when he won the presidency because his emphasis on honesty contrasted with the corruptions of Watergate.
50. The guiding principle of President Carter's foreign policy was human rights.
51. President Jimmy Carter's most spectacular foreign policy achievement was the Camp David agreement between Israel and Egypt.
52. President Carter believed that the fundamental problem of the American economy in the late 1970s was U.S. dependence on foreign oil.
53. The term "second wave feminism" refers to those like Betty Friedan who revived feminism in the 1960s and 1970s as a broad movement for women's rights and opportunities
54. Moderate and radical feminists differed over all the following issues except women's right to choose abortion
55. The SALT II Treaty between the Soviet Union and the United States died in the Senate when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan.
56. Boycotting the 1980 Olympic Games was one measure taken by President Carter in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
57. In chronological order: Arab oil embargo, fall of Saigon, Iranian hostage crisi, invasion of Afghanistan.
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Saturday, April 21, 2012
Chapter 38: The Stormy Sixties
1. When he became attorney general, Robert Kennedy wanted to refocus the attention of the FBI on organized crime and civil rights.
2. When he took office in 1961, President Kennedy chose to try to stimulate the sluggish economy through a tax cut.
3. In the early 1960s, as leader of France, Charles de Gaulle feared American control over European affairs.
4. The 1962 Trade Expansion Act reduced American tariffs.
5. John F. Kennedy's strategy of "flexible response" called for a variety of military options that could be matched to the scope and importance of a crisis.
6. While it seemed sane enough, John F. Kennedy's doctrine of flexible response potentially lowered the level at which diplomacy would give way to shooting.
7. American military forces entered Vietnam in order to prevent Ngo Dinh Diem's regime from falling to the communists.
8. The Alliance for Progress was intended to improve the level of economic well-being in Latin America.
9. Bay of Pigs is the least related to Tet, Pleiku, Gulf of Tonkin, and Operation Rolling Thunder.
10. When the Soviet Union attempted to install nuclear weapons in Cuba, President Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine of that island.
11. The Cuban missile crisis resulted in all of the following except U.S. agreement to abandon the American base at Guantanamo.
12. In a speech at American University in 1963, President Kennedy recommended the adoption of a policy toward the Soviet Union based on peaceful coexistence.
13. At first, John F. Kennedy moved very slowly in the area of racial justice because he needed the support of southern legislators to pass his economic and social legislation.
14. John Kennedy joined hands with the civil rights movement when he sent federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders.
15. Critics of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren complained that the Court was ignoring the Constitution in favor of its own social values.
16. President Kennedy ordered hundreds of federal marshals and thousands of federal troops to force the racial integration of the University of Mississippi.
17. By mid-1963, President John F. Kennedy's position on civil rights can best be described as committed to finding a solution to this moral issue.
18. At the time of his death, President John Kennedy's civil rights bill was making little headway.
19. The official government investigation of John F. Kennedy's assassination was led by Earl Warren.
20. President Kennedy's alleged assassin was Lee Harvey Oswald.
21. President Johnson proved to be much more successful than President Kennedy at working with Congress.
22. President Johnson called his package of domestic reform proposals the Great Society.
23. With the passage of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Congress handed the president a blank check to use further force in Vietnam.
24. Voters supported Lyndon Johnson in the 1964 presidential election because of their loyalty to the Kennedy legacy; faith in the Great Society promises; fear of the Republican nominee, Barry Goldwater; and trust in Johnson's Vietnam policy.
25. Lyndon Johnson channeled educational aid to public and parochial schools.
26. All of the following programs were created by Lyndon Johnson's administration except the Peace Corps.
27. In the final analysis, Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs won some noteworthy battles in education and health care.
28. The landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964 accomplished all of the following except requiring "affirmative action" against discrimination.
29. As a result of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, sources of immigration shifted to Latin America and Asia.
30. The common use of poll taxes to inhibit black voters in the South was outlawed by the Twenty-fourth Amendment.
31. Beginning in 1964, the chief goal of the black civil rights movement in the South was to secure the right to vote.
32. As a result of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, white southerners began to court black votes.
33. The Watts riot in 1965 symbolized the more militant and confrontational phase of the civil rights movement.
34. Black leaders in the 1960s included (Martin Luther King, Jr.), an advocate of peaceable resistance;(Malcolm X), who favored black separatism; and (Stokely Carmichael), an advocate of "Black Power."
35. By the late 1960s, Black Power advocates in the North focused their attention primarily on economic demands.
36. Some advocates of Black Power insisted that their slogan stood for all of the following except violence.
37. By 1972, integrated classrooms were most common in the South.
38. Aerial bombardment in Vietnam strengthened the communists' will to resist.
39. "Operation Rolling Thunder" was the code name for American bombing raids on North Vietnam.
40. The most serious blow to Lyndon Johnson's Vietnam policy was the Tet offensive of 1968.
41. During the Vietnam War, President Lyndon Johnson ordered the CIA, in clear violation of its charter, to spy on domestic antiwar protestors.
42. The 1968 Democratic party convention witnessed a police riot against antiwar demonstrators outside the convention hall.
43. The third-party candidate for president in 1968 was George Wallace.
44. Both major-party presidential candidates in 1968 agreed that the United States should continue the war in pursuit of an "honorable peace."
45. The skepticism about authority that emerged in the United States during the 1960s had deep historical roots in American culture.
46. The "three P's" that largely explain the cultural upheavals of the 1960s are population bulge, protest against Vietnam, and prosperity.
47. The site of the first major militant protest on behalf of *** liberation in 1969 was the Stonewall Inn (New York City).
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Friday, April 20, 2012
Chapter 37: The Eisenhower Era
1. Prospects for a Democratic victory in the 1952 presidential election were poor for all of the following reasons except Truman's refusal to seek another term.
2. Richard Nixon was selected as Dwight Eisenhower's vice-presidential running mate in 1952 as a concession to the hard-line anticommunists.
3. During the 1952 presidential campaign, Republican candidate Dwight Eisenhower declared that he would (personally got to Korea) to help to end the Korean War.
4. In terms of politics, television did all of the following except enable political parties to continue their role of educating and mobilizing the electorate.
5. Dwight Eisenhower's greatest asset as president was his enjoyment of the affection and respect of the American people.
6. Among anticommunists, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was the one who most damaged free speech.
7. The record would seem to indicate that President Eisenhower's strongest commitment during his presidency was to social harmony.
8. In response to Senator McCarthy, President Eisenhower privately supported him but publicly kept his distance.
9. Senator McCarthy rose to national prominence by charging that dozens of known Communists were working within the State Department
10. As a result of Senator McCarthy's crusade against communist subversion in the U.S., the State Department lost a number of Asian specialists who might have might have counseled a wiser course in Vietnam.
11. Senator McCarthy's anti-communist crusade ended when he alleged that there were communists in the Army.
12. The new militancy and restlessness among many members of the African-American community after 1945 was generated by World War II.
13. In an effort to overturn Jim Crow laws and the segregated system that they had created, African Americans used all of the following methods except appeals to foreign governments to pressure the U.S. to establish racial justice.
14. Orval Faubus is the least related to nonviolent direct action, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, and the Montgomery bus boycott.
15. The Supreme Court began to advance the cause of civil rights in the 1950s because Congress had abdicated its responsibilities by refusing to deal with the issue.
16. In the epochal 1954 decision in Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court declared that the concept of "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites was unconstitutional.
17. The 1954 Supreme Court case that ruled racially segregated school systems "inherently unequal" was Brown vs. Board of Education
18. On the subject of racial justice, President Eisenhower had criticized President Truman's call for establishing a permanent Fair Employment Practices Commission.
19. As president, Eisenhower supported the transfer of control over offshore oil from the states to the federal government.
20. President Eisenhower defined the domestic philosophy of his administration as "dynamic conservatism".
21. Eisenhower's policies toward Native Americans included a return to the assimilation goals of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887.
22. The bracero program between the U.S. and Mexico involved legally importing Mexican farm workers to the U.S.
23. During his presidency, Eisenhower accepted the principle and extended the benefits of the Social Security system.
24. As a part of his "New Look" foreign policy, Eisenhower called for "open skies" over both the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
25. The largest public works project during Eisenhower's presidency was construction of the interstate highway system.
26. President Eisenhower's "New Look" foreign policy in the 1950s planned for greater reliance on air power and the deterrent power of nuclear weapons.
27. In 1956, when Hungary revolted against continued domination by the Soviet Union, the U.S. under Eisenhower did nothing to help to defeat the communists.
28. The leader of the nationalist movement in Vietnam since World War I was Ho Chi Minh.
29. The 1955 Geneva Conference established a permanent division of Vietnam.
30. The Cold War seemed to thaw a little when, in 1955, the Soviet Union agreed to end its military occupation of Austria.
31. In 1956, the U.S. condemned (Britain and France) as the aggressors in the Suez Canal crisis.
32. During the 1950s, the Central Intelligence Agency engineered pro-American political coups in both Iran and Guatemala.
33. The 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine empowered the president to extend economic and military aid to nations of (the Middle East) that wanted help to resist communist aggression.
34. During his second term, President Eisenhower took a more active personal role than before in governing the country because he recognized that only he had the experience to deal with the Soviets.
35. In response to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957, the U.S. spend nearly a decade trying to equal this achievement.
36. The Landrum-Griffith Act is least related to the launching of Sputnik, National Defense Education Act, the "missile gap", and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
37. The Paris summit conference scheduled for 1960 was aborted by the U-2 incident.
38. By the end of the 1950s, Latin American anger toward the U.S. had intensified because Washington had done all of the following except allow Cuba to fall into the hands of the communists.
39. What may well have tipped the electoral scales for John F. Kennedy in the presidential election of 1960 was his televised debates with Richard Nixon.
40. When Eisenhower left the presidency in 1961, it was noted that his second term had produced little of value, since he was a "lame duck".
41. The affluent life-style developed in America during the 1950s was stimulated mainly by the new technology of television.
42. All of the following were harbingers of the emerging new life-style of leisure and affluence except the maturity of radio.
43. Compared to World War I, the literary outpouring from World War II can be best described as less realistic.
44. Many of the better known American poets in the post-World War II era ended their lives through *******.
45. In the 1950s, the key to economic growth rested in electronics.
46. In the 1950s, the work force began to change when white-collar workers outnumbered blue-collar workers.
47. Between 1950 and 1980, the majority of newly created jobs in the clerical and service fields were held by women.
48. Sports reflected the population shift toward the West and the South when baseball's Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants moved to the California.
49. Several critics of the new consumerism of the 1950s charged that the American people had developed into a generation of conformists.
50. In chronological order: fall of Dienbienphu, Suez crisis, marines sent to Lebanon.
51. The rapid upsurge in the employment of women after 1945 can be attributed mainly to the acceptance of women in management positions.
52. In her book The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan discusses the stifling boredom of suburban housewifery.
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Chapter 36: The Cold War Begins
1. Americans feared that the end of World War II would bring mainly a return to the Depression.
2. The Taft-Hartley Act delivered a major blow to labor by outlawing the closed (all-union) shops.
3. The passage of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) was partly motivated by fear that the labor markets could not absorb millions of discharged veterans.
4. On the home front in 1946, the post-war United States was characterized by an epidemic of labor strikes.
5. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 was passed to check the growing power of labor unions.
6. The growth of organized labor in the post-World War II era was slowed by all of the following except the reduced number of women in the work force.
7. In an effort to forestall an economic downturn, the Truman administration did all of the following except continue wartime wage and price controls.
8. The post-World War II prosperity in the U.S. was most beneficial to women.
9. The feminist revolt of the 1960s was sparked by a clash between the demands of the traditional role of women as wives and mothers and the realities of employment.
10. The long economic boom from World War II to the 1970s was fueled primarily by low energy costs.
11. Much of the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s rested on colossal military budgets.
12. One sign of the stress that the immediate growth of post-World War II geographic mobility placed an American families was the popularity of advice books on child-rearing.
13. Post-World War II American workers made spectacular gains in productivity owing to their rising educational levels.
14. Since 1945, the population in the United States has grown most in the Sunbelt.
15. Much of the Sunbelt's new prosperity was based on its tremendous influx of money from the federal government.
16. All of the following encouraged many Americans to move to the suburbs except development of fuel-efficient automobiles.
17. The rapid rise of suburbia in post-WWII America can be attributed to the baby boom, government mortgage guarantees, new highways, and "white flight".
18. By 1960, the proportion of Americans who lived in areas classified as metropolitan suburbs was approximately one out of four.
19. The continued growth of the suburbs led to an increase in urban poverty.
20. Population distribution after World War II followed a pattern of an urban-suburban segregation of blacks and white in major cities.
21. The refusal of FHA administrators to grant home loans to blacks resulted in driving many blacks into public housing.
22. The huge "baby boom" crested in the (late 1950s) and has been declining ever since.
23. The baby-boom generation will create a major problem in the future by placing an enormous strain on the Social Security system.
24. Harry Truman possessed all of the following personal characteristics except willingness to admit mistakes.
25. The U.S. believed that it was desirable to have the Soviet Union participate in the projected invasion of Japan because Soviet help could reduce the number of American casualties.
26. The origins of the Cold War lay in a fundamental disagreement between the U.S. and the Soviet Union over postwar arrangements in Eastern Europe.
27. Joseph Stalin's postwar security concerns focused primarily on Eastern Europe.
28. The responsibility for starting the Cold War rests with the United States and Soviet Union.
29. The earliest and most serious failure of the United Nations involved its inability to control atomic energy, especially in the manufacture of weapons.
30. In regard to postwar Germany, the Big Three allies agreed that high-ranking Nazis should be tried and punished for war crimes.
31. When the Soviet Union the United States, Britain, and France access to Berlin in 1948, President Truman responded by organizing a gigantic airlift of supplies to Berlin.
32. Soviet specialist George F. Kennan framed a coherent approach for America in the Cold War by advising a policy of containment.
33. The postwar policies adopted by the Truman administration toward the Soviet Union were based on the assumption that the Soviet Union was inherently expansionist.
34. The immediate concern that prompted the announcement of the Truman Doctrine was related to events in Greece and Turkey.
35. Under the Truman Doctrine, the U.S. pledged to support those who were resisting subjugation by communists.
36. Point Four - aid underdeveloped nations of Latin America, Asia, and Africa NATO - resist Soviet military threat Truman Doctrine - assist communist-threatened Greece and Turkey Marshall Plan - promote economic recovery of Europe
37. Truman's defenders argue that he exaggerated the Soviet threat because he received bad intelligence from the CIA.
38. President Truman's Marshall Plan called for military aid for Europe.
39. The Marshall Plan finally passed Congress largely because it was perceived there as economically beneficial to the United States.
40. All of the following objected to President Truman's support for the establishment of Israel except America's European allies.
41. American membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization did all of the following for the country except help reintegrate Germany into the European family.
42. The U.S.' participation in NATO reaffirmed our long-standing commitment to the defense of Europe, marked a dramatic departure from traditional American isolationism, reduced the need for increased military spending, and helped to resolve the problem of Germany.
43. Postwar Japan had its military leaders tried for war crimes, as had occurred in Germany.
44. Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalist government lost the Chinese civil war to the communists and Mao Ze-dong mainly because Jiang lost the support and confidence of the Chinese people.
45. In an effort to detect communists within the government, President Harry Truman established the Loyalty Review Board.
46. In 1948, many southern Democrats split from the party because President Truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights.
47. J. Strom Thurmond - States' Rights Henry Wallace - Progressive Harry S Truman - Democratic Thomas E. Dewey - Republican
48. In chronological order: Berlin airlift, fall of China, Korean War.
49. President Truman's domestic legislative plan was dubbed the Fair Deal.
50. President Truman's action upon hearing of the invasion of South Korea illustrated his commitment to a foreign policy of containment.
51. NSC-68 called for a massive increase in military spending.
52. The NSC-68 document reflected the American belief in the limitless capabilities of the American economy and society.
53. In chronological order: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO.
54. President Harry Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur from command of United Nations troops in Korea when MacArthur began to take issue publicly with presidential policies.
Chapter 35: America in World War II, 1941-1945
1. The fundamental strategic decision of World War I made by President Roosevelt and the British at the very beginning was to concentrate first on the war in Europe and to place the Pacific war against Japan on the back burner.
2. Once at war, America's first great challenge to retool its industry for all-out war production.
3. Overall, most ethnic groups in the United States during World War II further assimilated into American society.
4. Japanese Americans were placed in concentration camps during World War II as a result of anti-Japanese prejudice and fear.
5. The minority group most adversely affected by Washington's wartime policies was Japanese-Americans.
6. The general American attitude toward World War II was less idealistic and ideological and more practical than the outlook of World War I.
7. In the period from 1885 to 1924, Japanese Immigrants to the United States were a select group who were better educated than most Europeans.
8. When the United States entered World War II in December 1941, a majority of Americans had no clear idea of what the war was about.
9. During World War II, the United States government commissioned the production of synthetic rubber in order to offset the loss of access to prewar supplies in East Asia.
10. Match each of the wartime agencies below with its correct functions.
War Production Board- assigned priorities with respect to the use of raw materials and transportation facilities
Office of Price Administration- Controlled inflation by rationing essential goods
War Labor Board- imposed ceilings on wage increases
Fair Employment Practices Commission- Saw to it that no hiring discrimination practices were used against backs seeking employment in war industries
11. White most American workers were strongly committed to the war effort, wartime production was disrupted by strikes led by the United Mine Workers.
12. During World War II, labor unions substantially increased their membership.
13. The employment of more than six million women in American industry during World War II led to the establishment of day-care centers by the government.
14. The main reason the majority of women war workers left the labor force at end of WWII was family obligations.
15. African Americans did all of the following during World War II; rally behind the slogan "Double V", move north and west in large numbers, form a militant organization called the Congress of Racial Equality, and serve in the Army Air Corps.
16. During World War II, most Americans economically experience prosperity and a doubling of personal income.
17. The northward migration of African Americans accelerated after World War II because mechanical cotton pickers came into use.
18. By the end of WWII the heart of the US's African Americans community shifted to northern cities.
19. The national debt increased the most during WWII.
20. Most of the money raised to finance World War II came through borrowing.
21. The first naval battle in which all the fighting was done by carrier-based aircraft was the Battle of the Coral Sea.
22. The tide of Japanese conquest in the Pacific was turned following the Battle of Midway.
23. The Japanese made a crucial mistake in 1942 in their attempt to control much of the Pacific when they overextended themselves instead of digging in and consolidating their gains.
24. In waging war against Japan, the US relied mainly on the strategy of "island hopping" across the South Pacific while bypassing Japanese strongholds.
25. The conquest of Guam in 1944 was especially critical, because from there Americans could conduct round-trip bombing raids on the Japanese home islands.
26. Until spring 1943, perhaps Hitler's greatest opportunities of defeating Britain and winning the war was that the American-British-Soviet alliance would collapse.
27. Hitler's advance in European theater of war crested in the late 1942 at the Battle of Stalingrad, after which his fortunes gradually declined.
28. The Allies postponed opening a second front in Europe until 1944 because of British reluctance and lack of adequate resources.
29. Roosevelt's and Churchill's insistence on the absolute and "unconditional surrender" of Germany eventually complicated the problems of postwar reconstruction.
30. President Roosevelt's promise to the Soviet to open a second from in western Europe by the end of 1942 was utterly impossible to keep.
31. Casablanca Tehran Potsdam
32. Invasion of Italy D Day V-E Day V-J Day
33. The major consequence of the Allied consequence of Sicily in August 1943, was the overthrow of Mussolini and Italy's unconditional surrender.
34. The real impact of the Italian front on WWII may have been that it delayed the D-Day invasion and allowed the Soviet Union to advance further into Eastern Europe.
35. At the wartime Tehran Conference plans were made for the opening of a second front in Europe.
36. The cross-channel invasion of Normandy to open a second front in Europe was commanded by General Dwight Eisenhower.
37. In a sense, Franklin Roosevelt was the "forgotten man" at the Democratic convention in 1944 because so much attention was focused on who would gain the vice presidency.
38. Franklin Roosevelt won the election of 1944 primarily because the war was going well.
39. Hitler's last-ditch attempt to achieve a victory against the Americans and British came in the Battle of the Bulge.
40. As a result of the Battle of Leyte Gulf, Japan was finished as a naval power.
41. The Potsdam Conference issued an ultimatum to japan to surrender or be destroyed
42. During World War II, American Indians moved off reservations in large numbers.
43. The spending of enormous sums on the original atomic bomb project was spurred by the belief that the Germans might acquire such a weapon first.
44. The "unconditional surrender" policy toward Japan was finally modified by agreeing to let the Japanese keep Emperor Hirohito on the throne.
45. A group of highly effective military and political leaders, an enormously effective effort in producing weapons and supplies, the preservation of the American homeland against invasion or destruction from the air, and the maintenance and re-affirmation of the strength of American democracy was among the following qualities of the American participation in World War II.
Chapter 34: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War, 1933-1941
1. Franklin Roosevelt undermined the London Economic Conference because any agreement to stabilize national currencies might hurt America's recovery from depression,
2. As a result of Franklin Roosevelt's withdrawal from the London Economic Conference, the trend towards extreme nationalism was strengthened.
3. One internationalist action by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first term in office was the formal recognition of the Soviet Union.
4. Roosevelt's recognition of the Soviet Union was undertaken partly in hopes of developing a diplomatic counterweight to the rising power of Japan and Germany.
5. In promising to grant the Philippines independence, the United States was motivated by the realization that the islands were economic liabilities.
6. Franklin Roosevelt embarked on the Good Neighbor policy in part because he was eager to enlist Latin American allies to defend the Western Hemisphere European and Asian dictators.
7. As part of his Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America, President Roosevelt developed more generous policies of removing American controls on Haiti, Cuba, and Panama.
8. The 1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act increased America's foreign trade.
9. President Franklin Roosevelt's foreign-trade policy lowered tariffs to increase trade.
10. Throughout most of the 1930s, the American people responded to the aggressive actions of Germany, Italy, and Japan by retreating further into isolation.
11. Fascist aggression in the 1930s included Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia, Hitler's invasion of Czechoslovakia, and Franco's overthrow of the republican government of Spain.
12. By the mid-1930s, there was strong nationwide agitation for a constitutional amendment to forbid a declaration of war by Congress unless first approved by a popular referendum.
13. Passage of the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 by the United States resulted in all of the following; abandonment of the traditional policy of freedom of the seas, making no distinction whatever between aggressors and victims, spurring aggressors along their path of conquest, and balancing the scales between dictators and U.S. allies by trading with neither.
13. The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, Americans would be prohibited from sailing on the ships of the warring nations.
14. From 1925 to 1940 the transition of American policy on arms sales to warring nations followed this sequence: embargo to cash-and-carry to lend-lease.
15. America's neutrality during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939 allowed Spain to become a fascist dictatorship.
16. Franklin Roosevelt's sensational "Quarantine Speech" in 1937 resulted in a wave of protest by isolationists.
17. In September 1938 in Munich, Germany, Britain and France consented to Germany's taking the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.
18. In 1938 the British and French bought peace with Hitler at the Munich Conference by effectively handing over the nation of Czechoslovakia.
19. Shortly after Adolf Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union, Germany invaded Poland and started World War II.
20. The first casualty of the 1939 Hitler-Stalin nonaggression treaty was Poland.
21. Norway, the Netherlands, France, and Poland were conquered by Hitler's Germany between September 1939 and June 1940.
22. Probably the greatest obstacle to America's acceptance of more Jewish refugees from Europe was the restrictive Immigration Act of 1924.
23. The U.S. military refused to bomb Nazi gas chambers such as those at Auschwitz and Dachau because of the belief that bombing would divert essential military resources.
24. During the 1930s, the United States admitted about 150,000 Jewish refugees from Nazism.
25. Congress's first response to the unexpected fall of France in 1940 was to pass a conscription law.
26. America's neutrality effectively ended when when France fell to Germany.
27. In 1940, in exchange for American destroyers, the British gave the United States eight valuable naval bases in the Western Hemisphere.
28. By 1940 American public opinion had come to favor providing Britain with "all aid short of war."
29. The surprise Republican presidential nominee in 1940 was Wendell L. Willkie.
30.Franklin Roosevelt was motivated to run for a third term in 1940 mainly by his belief that America needed his experienced leadership during the international crisis.
31. The 1941 lend-lease program was all of the following; a focus on intense debate between internationalists and isolationist, a direct challenge to the Axis dictators, the point when all pretense of American neutrality was abandoned, and the catalyst that caused American factories to prepare for all-out war production.
32. When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, the United States made lend-lease aid available to the Soviets.
33. In 1940, Republican presidential candidate Wendell Willkie avoided deepening the sharp divisions among the American people when he avoided attacking the New Deal.
34. After the Greer was fired upon, the Kearny crippled, and the Reuben James sunk, Congress allowed the arming of United States merchant vessels.
35. Japan believed that it was forced into war with the United States because Franklin Roosevelt insisted that Japan withdraw from China.
36. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 came as a great surprise because President Roosevelt suspected that if an attack came, it would be in Malaya or the Philippines.
37. On the eve of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, a large majority of Americans still wanted to keep the United States out of war.
38. Munich Conference Hitler-Stalin nonaggression treaty German invasion of Poland
39. Fall of France Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union Atlantic Conference
Chapter 33: The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1933-1939
1. Franklin Roosevelt's affliction with infantile paralysis contributed the most to his development of compassion and strengths of will.
2. The most vigorous "champion of the dispossessed"- that is the poor, and minorities- in Roosevelt administration circle was Eleanor Roosevelt.
3. The Democratic party platform on which Franklin Roosevelt campaigned for the presidency in 1932 called for deficit spending.
4. In 1932 Franklin Roosevelt campaigned on the promise that as president he would attack the Depression by experimenting with bold new programs for economic and social reform.
5. One striking new feature of the 1932 presidential election results was that African Americans shifted from their Republican allegiance and became a vital element in the Democratic party.
6. While Franklin Roosevelt waited to assume the presidency in early 1933, Herbert Hoover tried to get the president-elect to commit to an anti-inflationary policy that would make much of the New Deal impossible.
7. When Franklin Roosevelt assumed the presidency in March 1933, he received unprecedented congressional support.
8. The Works Progress Administration was a major relief program of the New Deal; the Public Works Administration was a long-range recovery; and the Social Security Act was a major reform program.
9. The Glass-Steagall Act created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure individual bank deposits.
10. The most immediate emergency facing Franklin Roosevelt when he became president in March 1933 was the collapse of international trade and unemployment.
11. Franklin Roosevelt's initial "managed currency" policy aimed to stimulate inflation.
12. The Civilian Conservation Corps was probably the most popular New Deal program, the National Recovery Act was one of the most complex, and the Tennessee Valley Authority was the most radical.
13. President Roosevelt's chief "administrator of relief" was Harry Hopkins.
14. Match each New Deal critic below with the "cause of slogan that he promoted.
Father Coughlin- "Social Justice"
Huey Long-"every man a king"
Francis Townsend- old age pensions
Herbert Hoover- "a holy crusade for liberty"
15. Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana gained national popularity by promising to give every family $5,000.
16. Prominent female social scientists of the 1930s like Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead brought widespread contributions to the field of political science.
17. Robert Wagner- National Labor Relations Act
Harry Hopkins- Works Progress Administration
Harold Ickes- Public Works Administration
Francis Perkins- Department of Labor
18. The National Recovery Act (NRA) failed largely because it required too much self- sacrifice on the part of industry, labor, and the public.
19. The first Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) raised the money that it paid to farmers not to grow crops by taxing processors of farm products.
20. The Agricultural Adjustments Act (AAA) proposed to solve the "farm problem" by reducing agricultural production.
21. Both ratified in the 1930s, the Twentieth Amendment shortened the time between presidential election and inauguration; the Twenty-first amendment ended prohibition.
22. All of the following contributed to the Dust Bowl of the 1930s; dry-farming techniques, droughts, the cultivation of marginal farmlands on the Great Plains, and soil erosion.
23. In 1935, President Roosevelt set up the Resettlement Administration to help farmers migrate from Oklahoma to California.
24. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 attempted to reverse the forced assimilation of Native Americans into white society by establishing tribal self-government.
25. Most Dust Bowl migrants headed to California.
26. Most "Okies" in California escaped the deprivation and uncertainty of seasonal farm labor when they found jobs in defense industries during World War II.
27. The Federal Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Commission aimed to provide full disclosure of information and prevent insider trading and other fraudulent practices.
28. On the following, The Tennessee Valley Authority, George W. Norris, Muscle Shoals, and hydroelectric power are related to each other.
29. The federally-owned Tennessee Valley Authority was seen as a particular threat to the private electrical utility industry.
30. The strongest criticisms leveled against the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) drew criticism was that it represented the first stage of "creeping socialism".
31. The most controversial aspect of the Tennessee Valley Authority was its efforts in electrical power.
32. The Social Security Act of 1935 proved all of the following; unemployment insurance, old-age pensions, economic provisions for the blind and disabled, and support for the blind and physically handicapped.
33. The Wagner Act of 1935 proved to be a trailblazing law that gave labor the right to bargain collectively.
34. The National Labor Relations Act proved most beneficial to unskilled workers.
35. The primary interest of the Congress of Industrial Organizations was the organization of all workers within an industry.
36. The 1936 election was notable for its reflection of a bitter class struggle between the poor and the rich.
37. President Roosevelt's "Court-packing" scheme in 1937 reflected his desire to make the Supreme Court more sympathetic to New Deal Programs.
38. After Franklin Roosevelt's failed attempt to "pack" the Supreme Court, the Court began to support the New Deal Programs.
39. As a result of the 1937 "Roosevelt recession", Roosevelt adopted Keynesian (planned deficit spending) economies.
40. During the 1930s, the national debt doubled.
41. By 1938, the New Deal had lost most of its momentum.
42. Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal was notable for proving moderate social reform without radical revolution or reactionary fascism.
Chapter 32: The Politics of Boom and Bust, 1920-1932
1. Warren G. Harding's weakness as president included all of the following; mediocre mind, inability to detect moral weakness in his associates, unwillingness to hurt people's feelings by saying no, and administrative weakness.
2. Match each member of President Harding's cabinet below with his major area of responsibility.
Charles Evans Hughes- naval arms limitations
Andrew Melton- taxes and tariffs
Hebert Hoover- Foreign trade and trade associations
Albert Fall- Naval Oil Reserves
Harry Daugherty- justice and law enforcement
3. Albert Fall proved to be a incompetent and corrupt as a member of President Harding's cabinet.
4. Republican economic policies under Warren G. Harding sought to continue the same laissez-fair doctrine as had been the practice under William McKinley.
5. During the 1920s, the Supreme Court often ruled against progressive legislation.
6. Organized labor was adversely affected by the demobilization policies adopted by the federal government at the end of World War I.
7. The Supreme Court cases of Muller and Adkins centered on the question of whether women merited special legal and social treatment.
8. The nonbusiness group that realized the most significant, lasting gains from World War I was veterans.
9. One exception to President Warren G. Harding's policy of isolation involved in the Middle East, where the United States sought to secure oil-drilling concessions for American companies.
10. Warren G. Harding was willing to seize the initiative on the issue of international disarmament because business people were unwilling to help pay for a larger United States Navy.
11. The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawed war as a solution to international rivalry.
12. In the 1920s the Fordney-McCumber Tariff raised tariff rates and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff raised tariff rate, so that by the 1920 the tariff rates had been substantially raised from the opening of the decade.
13. European nations raising their own tariffs, the postwar chaos in Europe being prolonged, the international economic distress deepening, and American foreign trading decline was a consequence of the American policy of raising tariffs sky-high in the 1920s.
14. The Teapot Dome scandal involved the corrupt mishandling of naval oil reserves.
15. The major political sandal of Harding's administration resulted in the conviction and imprisonment of his secretary of the interior.
16. Honesty, frugality, shyness, and caution are following descriptive attribute characteristics of President Coolidge.
17. During Coolidge's presidency, government policy was set largely by the interest and values of the business community.
18. After the initial shock of the Harding scandals, many Americans reacted by excusing some of the wrongdoers on the grounds that "they had gotten away with it".
19. One of the major problems facing farmers in the 1920s was overproductions.
20. In the mid-1920s President Coolidge twice refused to sign legislation proposing to subsidize farm prices.
21. The intended beneficiarie