79 terms

Humanities: Islamic Empire, Early Middle Ages, Byzantine Empire

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Byzantine Empire
eastern half of the former Roman empire
Constantinople
capital of the Byzantine Empire; relatively easy to defend, good geographic position for trade
Emperor Justinian
Byzantine ruler whose legacy includes commissioning the Hagia Sophia and consolidating Roman law codes
Justinian's Code
a collection of laws written in Latin and consolidated by a Byzantine emperor
Kievan Rus'
Vikings who settled just north of the Byzantine empire and borrowed extensively from them
Great Schism
formal split in the Christian church in 1054
Hagia Sophia
means "holy wisdom;" this church was biggest structure in the Byzantine empire; incorporated Roman dome into its architecture
Ottoman Turks
defeated the Byzantine empire
mosaics
small squares assembled into a whole; frequently used in art in the Byzantine empire
byzantine
highly complex, intricate and involved
elements common to both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches
include belief in Jesus Christ, the Bible, sacraments, overall leadership (minus the pope)
disagreements between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches
include whether the pope should be the head of the church, language used to conduct church services, whether priests should be allowed to marry, views on divorce
onion dome
innovative application of the dome, most associated with Russia (Kievan Rus')
Middle Ages
term for the postclassical era when referring specifically to Western Europe
Geographic benefits for the Byzantine Empire
capital was easily defended, crossroads for trade, lots of natural resources
Ways the Byzantine Empire continued the classical Roman Empire's legacy
included keeping Greco-Roman culture alive, engineering and architectural achievements, forms of entertainment, rule by an "divinely appointed" emperor/caesar, law codes
Ways the Byzantine Empire deviated from the classical Roman Empire
included adopting Greek as its official language, endorsing Christianity throughout empire and building churches
Roman Catholic
name of the church sect in Western Europe that emerged from the Great Schism
Eastern Orthodox
Christian sect in Eastern Europe
Differences between postclassical Western and Eastern Europe's political structure
Western Europe had feudalism while Eastern Europe had a centralized government
Differences between postclassical Western and Eastern Europe's intellectual developments
Western Europe had low literacy rates/access to books, Eastern Europe was the opposite
Differences between postclassical Western and Eastern Europe's economies
Western Europe had manorialism with very little trade, while Eastern Europe had a thriving economy
Medieval
adjective for "Middle Ages"
the "Middle Ages" falls between what two Western European developments?
Classical Roman Empire and the Renaissance (which we'll study next semester)
Vikings
one of many invaders in Western Europe during the Early Middle Ages
Longship
technology that contributed to the Vikings' success in warfare and trade
Subsistence agriculture
farming with no or little surplus available for trade - defined Western Europe during the Early Middle Ages
Manorialism
term for the medieval economy and political system: a self-sufficient manor was divided up, and each person on the manor had to meet specific obligations
obligations of European knights
loyalty + 40 days of military service
roles of the medieval church
included spiritual, medical, economic and social needs
obligations of serfs in medieval Europe
included providing food for everyone else on the manor and maintaining the infrastructure of the manor (roads, walls, etc.)
Vikings' incentives for invasions throughout Europe
look, trade, land, fame
Describe the Code of Chivalry
outlined expectations of behavior for knights, both on and off the battlefield: had a religious component, as well as expectations for being a gentleman towards the ladies
similarities between the hajj and Christian pilgrimage
both were journeys demonstrating one's religious devotion
differences between the hajj and Christian pilgrimage
the hajj is required by all Muslims, and all Muslims go to Mecca; Christians often visited relics
difference between peasant and serf
serf: legally bound to the land, subject to the lord's control, financial and labor obligations (but not slaves); peasant is not bound by these restrictions
excommunication
banished from the church
Why did feudalism emerge?
Roman empire fell; invaders increased
years Early Middle Ages occurred
circa 500-1000
monastery
place where a monk lives
convent
place where a nun lives
What did knights receive in exchange for their service to a noble?
land, basic necessities, military protection
Russia
country established by Kievan Rus'
describe the medieval feudal hierarchy
monarch technically at top (but not much true power); then nobles/lords, knights, peasants/serfs
illuminated manuscript
handcopied text with artistic decoration
describe intellectual developments during the Early Middle Ages
literacy rates plummeted, intellectual developments came to an abrupt halt: only individuals working for the church were literate and/or had access to texts
fortress
aka castle: provided protection on manors during the Early Middle Ages
Which society had superior medical knowledge in the postclassical era: Islamic Empire or medieval Europe?
Islamic Empire
relic
sacred object, often the destination of European pilgrimages; sometimes believed to hold miraculous powers
feudalism
reciprocal relationships in medieval Europe (example: rights and obligations of serfs)
interdict
when the church banished an entire town or community or kingdom from receiving the sacraments and Christian burial (reflects the tremendous power of the medieval church)
Old Testament and Qur'an: similar or dissimilar?
similar
Shi'as belief about who should be leader
blood relative of Muhammad
Sunnis belief about who should be leader
capable leader
scientific and technological advancements of the Islamic Empire
included philosophy, science and history (medicine, optics, etc.)
Why did Islam appeal to Arabs (4 reasons)?
1. distinctly Arab 2. monotheistic (transcends tribal divisions) 3. provided common ethical system 4. treated all Muslims as spiritually equal
women's rights and roles: early stages of Islamic empire
included spiritual equality, prohibited killing daughters, women had right to inherit, could reject marriage offer, encouraged education so all Muslims could study Quran
women's rights and roles: later stages of Islamic empire
adopted practices from other cultures/rights declined: veiling, seclusion, upper-class women expected to dress modestly
3 resources that created tension among Bedouin tribes
water/wells, grazing lands, trade routes
types of goods and ideas that were diffused from the Islamic Empire to Western Europe
included chess, coffee, fortress design/characteristics, textiles (including rugs)
"God" in Arabic
Allah
economic significance of the Ka'ba before Islam
religious gathering place, place of temporary truce among clans, therefore facilitated trading
Muhammad's occupation
merchant
"Muslim"
"those who surrender to God"
How did the hajj/pilgrimage to Mecca encourage cultural diffusion?
Because Islam became such a popular religion in so many regions, people of many different backgrounds gathered at Mecca and were exposed to diverse ideas, which they would take back home with them
fraction of the world today that is Muslim
one-quarter
Why don't Muslims ever portray Allah or Muhammad in art or sculpture?
It isn't right or possibly to portray these religious figures in human terms, also to avoid potential idol-worship
hijrah
year one in the Muslim calendar
motives for early Muslim conquests (4)
spoils of war (booty), unified by religion, release pent-up energies, neighboring civilizations were weak
forms of material culture created within the Islamic Empire
mosques, religious schools, baths, hospitals
sharia
Islamic law: moral code and religious law (combined)
typical architectural elements used in Muslim mosques
minaret, Qibla wall, ablution fountains; decorated with Arabic script, geometric designs and/or plant/floral motifs
Dar-al-Islam
"the Muslim world" - regions that are predominantly Muslim
"mecca"
"place that attracts people"
5 Pillars of Islam
testimony of faith, prayer, giving zakat (charity), fasting during Ramadan, hajj (pilgrimage)
"People of the Book"
Jews and Christians, since they - in addition to Muslims - believe the Torah/Old Testament is a sacred and true document
peninsula where Muhammad was born
Arabian peninsula
House of Wisdom
intellectual center of Islamic Empire, located in Baghdad
True or False: Muslim warriors were trying to convert others to Islam through their conquests.
False

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