2nd CONTINENTAL CONGRESS-1775
PHILADELPHIA MAY 1775- Attendees= John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, George Washington, Patrick Henry & others. Issued OLIVE BRANCH PETITION. Authorized & approved the DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE.
to JOIN, or enlist someone, in an ASSOCIATION with OTHER STATES, ORGANIZATIONS, or PEOPLE FOR A COMMON PURPOSE.
American Enlistment Issue
most American soldiers enlisted for only one year. They would leave when they weren't paid or when they had to plant crops or harvest crops at home.
ARTICLES of CONFEDERATION
FIRST AGREEMENT TO CREATE A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT FOR THE U.S.- gave authority to CONTINENTAL CONGRESS for what it was doing- inadequate agreement because it lacked authority to impose taxes & enforcement powers.
BATTLE OF LEXINGTON & CONCORD- 1775
General Gage tried to capture a store of Patriot arms. Patriots knew "The Redcoats are coming!!". 8 colonists & 1 British soldier killed at Lexington. Patriots forced the British to retreat at Concord.
BATTLE of LONG ISLAND
British General HOWE led 34,000 troops & 10,000 sailors VS. WASHINGTON'S 20,000 poorly trained troops & no navy. Colonists lost & retreated to Manhattan.
BATTLE of SARATOGA
British GENERAL BURGOYNE'S forces DEFEATED at SARATOGA & he surrendered his whole army. Boosted U.S. spirits & U.S. VICTORY CONVINCED FRENCH TO SUPPORT U.S. French signed treaty with us & agreed to provide military aid- SPAIN & NETHERLANDS DID ALSO.
BATTLE of TRENTON
U.S. SURPRISE ATTACK on TRENTON- started with a Christmas night crossing of the DELAWARE RIVER (famous painting of this) surprised Hessians guarding Trenton & took most prisoner. WASHINGTON fooled Brits by fake campfires while U.S. troops snuck out to attack Princeton. VICTORY gave U.S. hope.
BATTLE of YORKTOWN
U.S. DEFEATED BRITISH GENERAL CORNWALLIS at YORKTOWN. British SURRENDERED to END WAR.
1) British soldiers experienced, professional soldiers 2) best trained, most experienced officers & newest weapons. 3)British hired MERCENARIES from other countries. 4) HESSIANS=mercenaries from the Hesse region of Germany. 5) Resupply issue 3,000 miles from Britain, supplies & communication took months 6)Advantage in numbers= 50,000 Brits to 10,000 colonists
BUNKER HILL- June 17, 1775, BOSTON
First & fierce battle. Colonists drove British back twice before running out of bullets. 14,500 soldiers had no uniforms, flintlock muskets or no guns at all. Some had experience fighting in the French & Indian War, many had no experience fighting at all.
A UNION OF STATES in which each member state retains some independent control over internal & external affairs. Thus, for international purposes, there are separate states, not just one state. A federation, in contrast, is a union of states in which external affairs are controlled by a unified, central government.
The CONTINENTAL ARMY
American Colonists army- the Patriots/home team- led by General GEORGE WASHINGTON.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Thomas Jefferson (at 33 years old) primary writer. He wrote every evening for 17 days. Introduction states why the Declaration was needed. Main ideas about government= We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Declaration of Independence continued
longest section was the colonists grievences, justification for revolution. Stated how colonists had tried to resolve differences peacefully. Said King was unfit to govern. CONCLUSION= 13 COLONIES DECLARE INDEPENDENCE- approved unanimously July 4, 1776. INDEPENDENCE DAY = July 4th every year since.
BRITISH GENERAL who planned to crush WASHINGTON'S ARMY in NEW ENGLAND- instead WAS DEFEATED at SARATOGA
John Hancock (1737-1793)
1737-1793. Patriot leader along with Samuel Adams of the SONS of LIBERTY. President of the second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Marquis da Lafayette
FRENCH NOBLEMAN who brought trained soldiers to U.S.- became trusted friend of Washington
U.S. officer caught by British spying- CONDEMNED to DEATH- he said, " I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
OLIVE BRANCH PETITION
Sent to King George lll to ask for peace & REPEL of INTOLERABLE ACTS- BRITISH REJECTED IT.
Paul Revere (1735-1818)
Member of SONS of LIBERTY. A leading American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818).
The supreme, absolute, & uncontrollable power by which an independent state is governed & from which all specific political powers are derived. The INTENTIONAL INDEPENDENCE OF A STATE, combined with the right & power of regulating its internal affairs without foreign interference. The power of a state to do everything necessary to GOVERN ITSELF such as making, executing & applying laws, imposing & collecting taxes, making war & peace & forming treaties or engaging in commerce with foreign nations.
Thomas Paine (1737 - 1809)
Wrote "COMMON SENSE". Patriot who changed public opinion with his pamphlet "Common Sense"- portrayed king George lll as a bully & claimed America's right to self rule.
TREATY of PARIS
British RECOGNIZED U.S. as INDEPENDENT NATION. Set U.S. borders from Atlantis to Mississippi River-southern border ended at Florida which was returned to Spain. Ended 8 years of warfare.