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44 terms

Honors Biology Semester 1 Test (Macromolecules)

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Atom
Basic unit of matter. Made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Proton
Positively charged particles with the same mass as a neutron. Makes up the nucleus with the neutrons.
Neutron
Neutrally charged particles with the same mass as a proton. Makes up the nucleus with the protons.
Electron
Negatively charged particles. Orbits the nucleus.
Covalent Bond
A bond that forms when electrons are shared between atoms.
Ionic Bond
A bond that forms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
Molecule
The smallest unit of most compounds.
Polar Molecule
When a molecule (water) has an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. (positive and negative charged ends)
Hydrogen Bond
A weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms
Cohesion
An attraction between molecules of the same substance.
Adhesion
An attraction between molecules of different substances.
Surface Tension
Water's cohesion cause molecules on the surface of water to be drawn inward, which is why drops of water form beads on a smooth surface.
Capillary Action
One of the forces that draw water out of the roots of a plant and up into its stems and leaves.
pH Scale
Indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
Acid
Contains higher concentrations of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values below 7.
Base
Contains lower concentrations of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values above 7.
Neutral
Has a pH of exactly 7.
Buffer
Weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.
Macromolecules
Large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together.
Carbon
Have four valence electrons. Can bond with many elements. Can bond with itself.
Four Bond
Carbon atoms have four valence electrons. Each electron can join with an electron from another atom to for a strong covalent bond.
Monomer
The smaller units that join together with polymers to create macromolecules.
Polymer
The larger units that join together with monomers to create macromolecules.
Carbohydrate
Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms with a ratio of 1:2:1. Used as the main source of energy and for structural purposes in living things. (Quick energy)
Monosaccharide
The monomer of carbohydrates.
Polysaccharide
The polymer of carbohydrates.
Benedict's Solution
Tests for simple sugars (carbohydrates)
Iodine Solution
Tests for starch (carbohydrates)
Lipids
Made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Common categories are fats, oils, and waxes. Used to store energy, in important parts of biological membranes, and for waterproof coverings.
Glycerol
Combines with fatty acids to form lipids.
Fatty Acids
When combined with Glycerol, lipids are formed.
Saturated
Fats with the maximum number of hydrogens.
Unsaturated
Fatty acids that contain more than one double bond.
Sudan 4
Tests for lipids.
Proteins
Made mostly of nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Used for structure and support, help to fight disease, carry out cell functions, and form bones and muscles.
Amino Acids
Linked by peptide bonds are the monomers of proteins.
Enzyme
Proteins that speed up (catalyze) chemical reactions that take place in cells and lower activation energy. Temperature and pH affect how well it works.
Substrates
The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
Active Site
The place where substrates bind to the enzyme.
Biurets
Tests for proteins.
Nucleic Acids
Made mostly of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. Used to store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
Nucleotides
Consist of three parts: a 5 - carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. Monomer of Nucleic Acids
RNA
Sugar ribonucleic acid. One kind of nucleic acid.
DNA
Sugar deoxyribonucleic acid. One kind of nucleic acid.