system existing in medieval Europe and postclassical Japan in which people worked and fought for nobles who gave them protection and land in return
European fight for the Holy Land. Began in 1095. Called for by Pope Urban II.
Guilds are associations of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town.
It was a code of behavior and honor for knights. It emphasized valor, courage, honesty and bravery.
These Norsemen were a group of people from Scandinavia. They raided northern Europe during the early middle ages and assimilated to European culture by the high and late middle ages.
Is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved used thin walls, point arches, ribbed vaults, tall spires, lots of sculptures (gargoyles), stained glass and flying buttresses.
One Hundred Years War
A war that lasted from the middle of the fourteenth century to the middle of the fifteenth. It demonstrated that knights and castles were obsolete.
An external, arched support for the wall of a church or other building. They were used in many Gothic cathedrals.
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Christian sect in the Byzantine Empire as a result of the Great Schism - includes among others the Greek and Russian Orthodox churches.
The Black Death
The epidemic outbreak of bubonic plague in Europe around 1348 that killed between one-third and two-thirds of the population in less than five years. The epidemic spanned from China to Europe, transmitted along the Silk Road and other trade routes.
Roman Catholic Church
The branch of Christianity headed by the pope. The Roman Catholic Church is governed by a hierarchy with the pope at the top and at the lower levels, bishops and priests. It was the strongest institution in Europe during the Middle Ages. It was the sole unifying force in western Europe....everyone was Catholic.
Why were the Crusades the turning point of the Middle Ages?
Because although the wars did not meet their military goals, these conflicts helped to reignite contact, trade and new learning with the Middle East and Asia. This helped to pull Europe out of this dark time.
replaced oxen with horses and allowed the use of a heavier plow
formed by craftsmen; organized around specific trades
benefits of a guild
set prices, quality control, apprenticeship programs
facilitated trade by bringing merchants and their goods from distant parts to one area
introduced to Europe in the high middle ages, contributed to higher literacy rates
technological advancements of the Middle Ages that made castles and knights obsolete
how the Black Death spread
spread by fleas living in the fur of rats; followed the trade routes
effects of the Black Death
killed 1/3 of Europe's population
improvement in agriculture that allowed farmers to use more of their available land for farming
most important impact of the Crusades on western Europe
problems that arose in western Europe as a result of urbanization
lacked infrastructure for removing human and animal waste, lack of hygiene
reasons intellectual activity rose during the high middle ages
schools/universities, borrowed ideas from classical roots and from other civilizations
decorative figures in Gothic architecture
decorative rain spots
reasons feudal monarchies' powers rose by end of middle ages
gunpowder, cannons introduced to Europe; hired professional armies