29 terms

Humanities: High & Late Middle Ages

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feudalism
system existing in medieval Europe and postclassical Japan in which people worked and fought for nobles who gave them protection and land in return
Crusades
Europeans fought for the Holy Land in the Middle East; began in 1095.
guild system
associations of artisans or merchants who controlled the practice of their craft in a particular town
chivalry
code of behavior and honor for European knights: emphasized valor, courage, honesty and bravery
Gothic
style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period: included pointed arches, ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, thin walls, tall spires, gargoyles, grotesque figures, stained glass
One Hundred Years War
conflict that took place near the end of the postclassical era; it demonstrated that knights and castles were obsolete (outdated, useless)
flying buttresses
An external, arched support for the wall of a church or other building, used in many Gothic cathedrals.
Black Death
The epidemic outbreak of bubonic plague in Europe during the late middle ages, killing between one-third and two-thirds of the population in fewer than five years. The epidemic spanned from China to Europe, transmitted along the Silk Road and other trade routes.
Why were the Crusades a turning point of the middle ages?
Although the wars did not meet their military goals, these conflicts helped to reignite contact, trade and new learning with the Middle East and Asia. This helped to pull Europe out of this difficult time.
moldboard (iron) plow
replaced oxen with horses and allowed the use of a heavier plow
benefits of a guild
set prices, quality control, apprenticeship programs that limited the number of people entering the profession; some guilds created job opportunities for women
medieval trade fairs
facilitated trade by bringing merchants and their goods from distant parts to one area a few times per year
universities
introduced to Europe in the high middle ages, contributed to higher literacy rates
technological advancements of the middle ages that made castles and knights obsolete
gunpowder
how the Black Death spread
spread by fleas living in the fur of rats; followed the trade routes
three-field system
improvement in agriculture that allowed farmers to use more of their available land for farming
most important impact of the Crusades on western Europe
cultural diffusion
problems that arose in western Europe as a result of urbanization
lacked infrastructure for removing human and animal waste, lack of hygiene, contaminated water supply
reasons intellectual activity rose during the high middle ages
schools/universities, borrowed ideas from classical roots and from other civilizations (including the Islamic empire/Arabs)
grotesque figures
decorative figures in Gothic architecture
gargoyles
decorative rain spots used in Gothic architecture
reasons feudal monarchies' powers rose by end of middle ages
gunpowder, cannons introduced to Europe; hired professional armies
harness for horse
used in conjunction with the moldboard plow, this technology allowed Europeans to increase their crop yields during the high middle ages
What was the main reason medieval towns and cities grew as Europe entered the high middle ages?
Invasions and warfare declined as groups such as the Vikings assimilated into European culture, which made merchants and artisans feel comfortable moving into settlements that evolved into urban areas.
What sorts of economic changes occurred in Western Europe as they entered the high middle ages?
money was created again, which led to bankhouses
incentives for participants in the Crusades
religious fervor, salvation/forgiveness, hope for wealth/land, adventure
What is vernacular literature?
literature written in everyday languages of ordinary people (example: French rather than Latin)
Did population grow or decline during the high middle ages? late middle ages?
grew during the high middle ages, declined during the late middle ages
Romanesque
type of architecture typical in Western Europe just before Gothic architecture was introduced