47 terms

Chapter 18 World War 2 Terms

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Kamikaze
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
D-Day (Battle of Normandy)
June 6 1944. Allied troops execute a surprise attack on the beaches of Normandy, France.
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
Genocide
Deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group
Final Solution
Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish people
Ghettos
City neighborhoods in which European Jews were forced to live
Aryans
Germanic people seen as the master race
Holocaust
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Kristallnacht
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
Battle of Guadalcanal
(1942-1943) World War II battle in the Pacific; it represented the first Allied counter-attack against Japanese forces; Allied victory forced Japanese forces to abandon the island
Douglas MacArthur
(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
Battle of El Alamein
1942-British victory in WWII that stopped the Axis forces from advancing into Northern Africa
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Yamamoto
Commander in Chief of the combined Japanese fleet, led invasion of Pearl Harbor and Battle of Midway
Battle of Britain
An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Erwin Rommel
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Charles de Gualle
A general in WWII, he organized a government in exile immediately after the collapse of France and believed himself to be the true representative of France.
Blitzkrieg
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
Third Reich
The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Japan
Appeasement
Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict
Nazism
National socialism. In practice a far-right wing ideology (with some left-wing influences) that was based largely on racism and ultra-nationalism.
Adolf Hitler
Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. Hitler's pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).
Benito Mussolini
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
Fascism
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Allied Powers
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
Rosie the Riviter
Cultural Icon of the U.S representing the American women who worked in factories during WWII
Rationing
Taking items that are in short supply and distributing them according to a system. For instance, during World War II, gas, sugar, and butter were a few of the items rationed in the United States.
Battle of Iwo Jima
lasted 6 weeks, several thousand marines, and more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed, this battle is also notable for the famous photograph of US marines lifting the American flag to a standpoint
Island Hopping
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others
Concentration Camp
prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
Executive Order 9066
2/19/42; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war which created the United Nations
Doolittle Raid
The retaliatory attack by American bombers after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
America's first air attack on Japan
Bombers took off from a carrier to bomb Tokyo. Minor damage inflicted, but scared Japan and encouraged USA.
Nuremberg Laws
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood.
Battle of Okinawa
First Japanese Home island (only 340 miles from mainland Japan) to be invaded. Island of immense strategic value. Involving over 500,000 troops and over 1,200 ships. Battle showed Japanese determination to resist invasion.
(1945) World War II victory for the Allied troops that resulted in the deaths of almost all of the 100,000 Japanese defenders; the battle claimed 12,000 American lives
George Marshall
He served as FDR's chief consultant during World War II and would go on to become Secretary of State under President Truman. It was during this time that he proposed the Marshall Plan which was an economic plan to rebuild post war Europe and insure that the speed of communism was contained. Army chief of staff, pushed for the formation of a women's auxiliary army corps (WAAC).
Yalta Conference
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
Fred Korematsu
A Japanese-American, he refused to accept being put in an internment camp during WWII and petitioned the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. The United States (1944)
Tuskegee Airmen
All black squadron of fighter pilots that successfully protected every bomber it escorted during WWII
Navajo Code Talkers
Native Americans from the Navajo tribe used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not desipher
General George Patton
General in the U. S. Army who helped lead the allies to victory in the battle of the bulge and burst out of Normandy
Albert Einstein
signed a letter to Roosevelt, warning that powerful bombs may be constructed using uranium in Germany

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