Unit 8 - Test- DNA/RNA and Protein Synthesis
Terms in this set (37)
A segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein.
DNA winds around proteins into this compact, visible structure.
Scientist(s) that provided the first photograph of DNA through x-ray crystallography.
Watson & Crick
Scientist(s) that proposed the structure of DNA as a double-helix.
The structure of DNA where two strands wrap around each other in a spiral shape.
5 Carbon sugar found in DNA
5 Carbon sugar found in RNA
1. 5 Carbon Sugar
2. Phosphate Group
3. Nitrogenous Base/ Nitrogen Base
4 Nitrogen Bases of DNA
THYMINE, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine
4 Nitrogen Bases of RNA
URACIL, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine
Strong attraction that holds the two strands of DNA together.
Allows for base pairing
Nitrogen bases with only 1 ring (Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil)
Nitrogen bases with 2 rings (Adenine, Guanine)
Purine that bonds with Thymine (2 H bonds)
Pyrimidine that pairs with Guanine (3 H bonds)
Pyrimidine that pairs with Adenine (2 H bonds)
Purine that pairs with Cytosine (3 H bonds)
Hold tother the nucleotides and sugar phosphate backbone.
Characteristics of RNA
Contains nitrogenous base Uracil
Characteristics of DNA
Contains nitrogenous base Thymine
3 types of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
A single-stranded complementary copy of DNA. Used to make an amino acid chain.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
Carries a SPECIFIC AMINO ACID to the ribosome.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Part of the ribosome that helps it find the start codon (AUG).
DNA used as a template to make a strand of mRNA. (DNA -> mRNA)
mRNA codons used by the ribosome to make polypeptide sequence (protein).
Start Codon (AUG)
Signals the beginning of protein synthesis.
Location of Transcription
Location of Translation
Sequence of 3 nucleotides of mRNA that code for protein.
Sequence of 3 nucleotides of tRNA that are complementary to mRNA and bring the correct amino acid to the ribosome.
Strand of DNA that is used to make the complementary copy of mRNA.
The site where mRNA is "read" and translated into an amino acid sequence.
The bond formed between amino acids to make a protein.
Stop Codons (UGA, UAA, UAG)
Signal the end of protein synthesis.
Enzyme that unzips the DNA double-helix and forms the complementary strand of mRNA.
Protein monomer attached to a tRNA and brought to the ribosome.
We get these amino acids from what we eat.