20 terms

Chapter 32

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Holy Alliance
D: The Holy Alliance was an alliance, proposed by Alexander I, between Russia, Prussia, and Austria dedicated to defending conservative monarchies and religion. S: While the alliance did not accomplish much, the idea of the alliance led to tensions between Conservatives and Liberals in Russia.
Decembrist uprising
1. The Decembrist Uprising was a political revolt in 1825 led by middle-level Russian army officers who supported reformation. 2. It was important because it was put down by the tsar and his army, demonstrating Russia's need for reform for the people.
Crimean Wars
The Crimean War occurred between 1854 to 1856. It started as a Russian attack on the Ottoman Empire; Russia also was against France and Britain. It was significant because Russia was defeated, even when they had the upper hand in technology. It led Russia into reforms under Tsar Alexander the 2nd.
Emancipation of the Serfs
1. The serfs, which made up over 90% of the population, were freed, technically. The serfs were still poor and had no power, but they were free. 2. The emancipation led to a larger urban labor force and there was no more serfdom, which was a huge change.
Zemstovoes
def - Were local political councils put into place in Russia by Alexander II. These councils were necessary due to the emancipation of the serfs and thus the serfs were no longer ruled by the nobles. Zemstovoes were in charge of regulating roads, schools and other regional policies. Although they had no influence on a national level.
Trans-Siberian railroad
D: An extensive railroad network created by Russia in the 1870s and 1880s, connecting European Russia with the Pacific S: Stimulated Russia's iron and coal industry and the export of grain to the West; opened up Siberia to new development, and brought Russia into a more active Asian role
Intelligentsia
Definition: Is a Russian term designating articulate intellectuals as a class. They formed a group in the 19th century. Significance: This group was determined to see radical changes in Russia, but they also wished to maintain a culture different from that of the West.
Anarchists
Anarchists are political activists who believe that government or state are unnecessary, and even undesirable. They are significant because they played a significant role in the Russian revolution and subsequent events that led to the overthrow of the Czar.
Lenin
1. Full: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov; one of the most active Marxist leaders in Russia in the 1890s; introduced important innovations in Marxist theory to make it more appropriate for Russia. 2. He said that Russia could have a proletarian revolution without going through a middle-class phase and insisted on importance of disciplined revolutionary cells that maintained doctrinal purity and effective action under severe police repression. His approach led to the group called Bolsheviks.
Bolsheviks
D: Radical branch who believed in Marx's theory of communism. The group was led by Lenin, and tried for social revolution. Name means majority party, even though they were a minority party in Russia. S: The Bolsheviks achieved success with the 1917 revolution. This is significant because it led Russia to communism, which became a popular form of government that spread to some countries in Asia.
Russian Revolution of 1905
efinition - The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a series of waves of political unrest in Russia in which several different groups expressed dissatisfaction of the current political and social situation in Russia. Significance - It lead to a constitutional monarchy, the Duma of the Russian Empire, and the Russian Constitution of 1906.
Duma
1. The Duma was a national parliament established by Tsar Nicholas II after the Revolution of 1905, due to the increased agitation among the urban groups, the peasants, and the liberals. 2. The Duma was significant because it helped the Tsar decrease the unhappiness of the liberal groups, but the Duma increasingly had their influence lowered, therefore, never allowing them to forestall any further revolution.
Stolypin reforms
D: a series of reforms organized by interior minister Piotyr Stolypin, which aimed to created a market-based peasant class. S: These reforms led to a new series of strikes and unrest among the lower classes while the Duma increasingly lost power.
Kulaks
D: Class of independent farmers who emerged from the Stolypin reform. They could acquire a plot of land from a larger estate owner for a credit. This credit had to be repaid over time as a type of "mortgage" S: Became a class enemy to the lower farmer class. According to Marxism, and Lenin's interpenetration the Kulaks had to be risen up against by the poorer farming class
Matthew Perry
Mathew Perry: American commodore (naval officer). Sig: In 1853 went to Edo Bay, Japan arrived with many other officers, and threatened them with bombs, and fire arms. And tried to gain the Americans right to trade in Japan again.
Meiji restoration
1. The Meiji Restoration constituted a series of radical changes in the political structure of Japan after the overthrowing of the Tokugawa shogunate, in which Meiji ministers abolished the samurai and established new ties with the West in order to gain technology. 2. This series of reforms instituted improvements in the Japanese technological base and helped make possible a Japanese Industrial Revolution, stimulating Japanese economic growth.
Diet
1) The Japanese parliament that was established as a part of the Meiji constitution of 1889. It could pass laws and approve budgets, but all of the real power remained with the Sat-Cho leaders. 2) Showed some Westernization combined with Japanese ideas. The Japanese political system of a centralized government held by a handful of Meiji advisors gave power to a group of wealthy businessmen and former nobles who pulled strings within the parliament.
Zaibatsu
1) Zaibatsu are large industrial combines which were formed in the 1890's during industrialization in Japan. 2) They are significant because they are an indication of new and extravagant merchant and industrial operations in Japan fueled by large accumulations of capital.
Sino-Japanese War
1. The Sino-Japanese war was between China and Japan for influence in Korea. Japan won. 2. Led to Japan annexing Korea, not China.
Yellow Peril
1) The yellow peril was a western term used to describe the emerging industrialization and imperialism of Asian cultures, especially Japan in the 1900s. 2) The west was beginning to see that they had vastly underestimated the rising qualities of Japanese culture, such as industrialization and imperialism, which were soon to challenge their own place in world culture.