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39 terms

Janny's FHCI SBI3UI Digestive system and Diagrams

A review of terms and information regarding the digestive system.
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amino acids
Proteins are made of __________ __________.
carbohydrates
The main source of energy for your body is __________.
lipids
Fats are also called __________.
unsaturated
Fats are classified as __________ if they have any double bonds.
saturated
Fats are classified as __________ if they have no double bonds.
cholesterol
Saturated fats are associated with high __________.
digestion
The process that breaks down food into small molecules that can be absorbed by blood is called __________.
mechanical
When food is chewed, mixed, and churned __________ digestion is taking place.
chemical
When food is broken down by enzymes or acid, __________ digestion is taking place.
enzyme
An __________ is a type of protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction in your body.
enzymes
Many __________ are involved in the chemical digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
mouth
The __________ is where digestion begins.
esophagus
The __________ is a muscular tube that moves food to the stomach using peristalsis, or waves of muscle contractions.
peristalsis
Food moves through your digestive system by waves of muscle contractions called __________.
stomach
In the __________, food is mechanically digested by peristalsis and chemically digested by enzymes and hydrochloric acid.
mechanically
In the stomach, food is __________ digested by peristalsis and chemically digested by enzymes and hydrochloric acid.
chemically
In the stomach, food is mechanically digested by peristalsis and __________ digested by enzymes and hydrochloric acid.
small intestine
The __________ __________ is lined with villi which increase surface area to help with the absorption of nutrients.
villi
The small intestine is lined with __________ which increase surface area to help with the absorption of nutrients.
blood
Once nutrients are absorbed by the villi they are then transported to all body cells by the __________.
surface area
The small intestine contains villi which increase __________ __________ to help with the absorption of nutrients.
large intestine
The __________ __________ absorbs water from undigested food.
chyme
The food liquid produced by the stomach is called __________.
water
The main function of the large intestine is to re-absorb excess __________ before eliminating solid waste.
rectum
The __________ and anus control the release of solid wastes from the body.
Bacteria
__________ live in your large intestine and make vitamins from undigested food.
esophagus
connects mouth to stomach.
stomach
kills germs, breaks up food, digests proteins, and stores food.
small intestine
performs absorption through lining and chemical digestion. 6 meters in length contains the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
large intestine
(colon) solid matter passes through here, re-absorbs water.
rectum
the last section of the colon which eliminates feces.
liver
F.
function- produces bile which breaks up fats and is stored in gallbladder until needed.
gall bladder
G.
function- stores and concentrates bile until it is needed.
stomach
In the picture of the digestive system what is letter "H" pointing to?
pancreas
I.
function- the pancreas secretes digestive enzymes (exocrine) and hormones (endocrine)
bile
A green fluid made from cholesterol and secreted by the liver. It is stored and concentrated in the gallbladder. Bile is an amphipathic molecule that is secreted into the small intestine when fats are present, and serves to emulsify the fats for better digestion by lipases. released into the duodenum.
digestive enzymes
trypsin- digests proteins
amylase - digests starch
Buffers- neutralizes acid from stomach
mouth
breaks up food, digests starch, moistens food
bolus
a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed