Chapter 6 Test
Terms in this set (42)
a prior example of a government decision that can be referenced in future cases of a similar nature.
those powers authorized by the Constitution that, while not stated, seem to be implied by powers given to the federal government. Referred to as the "Elastic Clause" for its loose interpretation of the Constitution.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Congress created a Judicial structure of courts under the Supreme Court (district circuit). Allowed state court decisions to be appealed to the Federal court if Constitutional issues were raised.
composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government, who are the heads of various departments. Primary purpose is to advise and assist the President in carrying out his duties.
Report on the Public Credit
Hamilton calculated the debt accrued by US government from the Revolution. Hamilton proposed paying off foreign debt immediately and to sell new bonds to raise revenues.
Bank of the United States
financial agent of federal government. Holds government funds, issues paper money, handles tax receipts and distributes federal loans.
District of Columbia
the site chosen for the new US capital to be built. Located in between Maryland and Virginia, on the Potomac River.
Shared Hamilton's view of a large federal government to solve the nation's problems. Federalist policies called for a national bank, tariffs, good relations with Britain and use of implied powers.
Shared Jefferson's view of limited federal government, with empowered states. Supported the idea of strict construction, where the constitution is read literally and without implied powers. Party stood for the interest of farmers. Feared monarchical tendencies of Federalists.
import on tax on goods produced in Europe and sold in America. Inflated price was meant to encourage people to buy American products.
an indirect tax on a product's manufacture and sale. Typically placed on luxury items. The tax is usually hidden in the cost of the item which makes them popular amongst politicians.
Pennsylvania grain farmers protested excise tax on Whiskey. Federal Government crushed protest with 15,000 troops. This action, contrasting with the inaction at Shay's Rebellion demonstrated the power of the new government.
Proclamation of Neutrality
Washington feared being drawn into a European war instead of focusing on growing the nation domestically. He declared America shall be impartial to warring nations.
Citizen Genet Affair
French diplomat Edmund Genet violated US neutrality by recruiting American dock workers to raid British ships. Fearing US would be drawn into war, Washington deports Genet.
America claims disputed Louisiana Territory from Spain, gains access to entire Mississippi River, including the port of New Orleans. Negotiated by US diplomat Thomas Pinckney.
Treaty with Britain where English would remove troops from the Northwest Ordinance territory in exchange for America's promise not to side with France in their war with Britain. Negotiated by Justice John Jay. Unpopular with American public.
The Farewell Address
Washington urged US to steer clear of permanent alliances with European nations, promoting policy of isolationism and focus on domestic issues. Pleaded with Congress to not form political parties and avoid sectionalism.
Election of 1796
1st election with opposing parties. John Adams defeats Thomas Jefferson narrowly. Jefferson named VP for coming in 2nd place. demonstrated deep sectional divide in the country
2nd President of the US, Federalist candidate. Set precedent to restrict rights of immigrants, expanded US Navy allowed a peaceful transition after re-election defeat
American delegation was told they had to pay a $250,000 bribe in order to even meet with the French minister Talleyrand. Americans are insulted, giving rise to anti-French feelings and brings the two nations to the brink of war.
Alien and Sedition Acts
requirement for US citizenship from 5 years to 14 years, empowered the President to deport any foreign born person considered dangerous. Jail terms and fines set for any American who spoke or wrote "false, slanderous, or malicious" things about US Government.
Theory that states have the right to declare acts of Congress as unconstitutional. This statute never went into law because it violated division of power between state and national governments.
Election of 1800
Jefferson wins over Adams, but is tied with his Vice Presidential candidate Aaron Burr. House of Representatives resolves tie and awards the Presidency to Jefferson. Change from Federalist control to Democratic-Republican control became known as the Revolution of 1800.
Jefferson's Vice President, shot and killed Hamilton in a duel. Encounter ruined Burr's political career amidst murder charges.
Twelfth Amendment (1804)
Electoral College electors cast separate ballots for President and Vice President.
named by Adams as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Marshall was a strict Federalist who greatly strengthened the power of the Supreme Court.
Adams named several Federalist judges to the bench in his last few days in office, hoping to maintain Federalist influence in the Judicial branch long after the Adams Presidency came to a close.
Marbury v. Madison
1803 Supreme Court case, heard by the Marshall Court, in which the Supreme Court gave itself the power of Judicial Review.
power of Supreme Court to abolish legislative acts by declaring them unconstitutional, Supreme Court able to check power of Congress and President by upholding supremacy of Constitution.
The Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson doubled the size of the US by purchasing all French land in America(From Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains) for 15 million dollars. Gave America control of entire Mississippi River and established the precedent that Presidents may now agree to treaties to purchase land from foreign countries.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Mission to explore St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean. Recorded invaluable information about new US territories that would help settlers survive there. Optimistic reports encouraged settlers to move.
use of ships to prevent movement around ports controlled by a hostile nation. French and British blockades led to over 1,000 US ships being seized while peacefully carrying trade cargo.
Freedom of the Seas
The right of a neutral nation to trade with warring nations as long as good will not be used for war.
forced recruitment of American sailors into the British Royal Navy. Around 6,000 Americans were pressed into British military service between 1808-1811
Jefferson puts an embargo (ban on foreign trade) on all imports and exports going to France and Britain in an effort to force Europe to respect US neutrality. Act backfires and damages American economy, reducing the New England based shipping industry to bankruptcy
Movement promoting unity among different Native groups in the Americas regardless of tribal affiliation. Organizers sought to pool resources together to protect Native land interests from US confiscation.
conflict between US Army and Native confederacy led by Shawnee leader Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory. Tecumseh died fighting at the Battle of the Thames, and his confederacy disintegrated. Natives fought with British made rifles, indicating British desire to undermine the US government.
Democratic Republican who won Presidential election of 1808. Successor to Jefferson's small government ideals. Believed the British were strangling US trade, and pushed for outbreak of the War of 1812. Left a legacy that Presidents can centralize authority during war and that the Federal government could unite the country by expanding transportation networks.
nationalistic members of Congress who approved war with Britain in War of 1812, angry over US treatment in the Napoleonic Wars and dreaming of US expansion. They intended to acquire Canada from Britain, and Florida from Britain's ally Spain.
Battle of New Orleans
decisive American victory over the British, as overconfident redcoats marched into entrenched American riflemen and cannons. Demonstrated General Andrew Jackson's leadership, turning him into an American hero and icon.
Federalists who were opposed to the war discussed secession, and making declaring war more difficult in the future. As a result of the victory at New Orleans and the favorable terms at Ghent, public opinion turned on them, leading to the destruction of the Federalist party
Treaty of Ghent
armistice (negotiated truce) ending War of 1812. Restored relations to pre-war status between two nations. All conquered land, ships, and POWs returned to prewar owner. Unresolved issues: end of impressment, restoration of freedom of the seas.