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Earth's Materials - Chapters 1-4 Vocabulary
A solid homogeneous inorganic substances occurring in nature having a definite chemical composition.
A solid formed by the solidification of a chemical and having a highly regular atomic structure.
Molten rock in the earth's crust.
Atoms arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over again.
Minerals that contain silicon and oxygen.
How easily a mineral can be scratched.
A scale used to determine the hardness of a mineral.
The relationship between the density of a material and the density of water.
The way a mineral relfects light.
The color of a mineral when it is in a powdered form.
The ability to break along smooth flat surfaces.
The tendency for minerals to break with jagged, uneven, or jagged surfaces.
Highly prized minerals because they are rare and beautiful.
A mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined at a profit.
A mixture of minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic matter, or other natural materials.
A model which shows the processes that create and change rocks.
Type of rock formed when hot magma cools and hardens.
Molten rock which has reached the earth's surface.
intrusive igneous rock
Type of rock formed from cooling magma below the earth's surface.
extrusive igneous rock
Type of rock formed from cooling lava above the earth's surface.
Type of rock formed from magma which is rich in iron and magnesium. It is dark in color.
Type of rock formed from magma which has a low magnesium and iron content. Tends to be light in color.
Type of rock with moderate amounts of magnesium and iron.
Type of rock which forms when heat and pressure cause chemical changes in existing rocks.
A type of texture where mineral grains line up in parallel layers.
Loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of shell that have been moved by wind, water, ice, or gravity.
The tearing away of small pieces of rock due to wind, water, ice or gravity.
Type of rock that forms when sediments are pressed and cemented together.
A process which occurs when minerals such as quartz, calcite, and hematite are deposited between the pieces of sediment.
chemical sedimentary rock
A type of sedimentary rock formed when dissolved minerals come out of solution.
organic sedimentary rock
A type of sedimentary rock formed from the remains of once-living things.
Fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.
A rock that contains at least 50 percent plant remains.
A type of fuel extracted from solid organic material, or is created directly by humans.
A thick, black liquid formed from the buried remains of microscopic marine organisms.
A hydrocarbon that is lighter than oil, but forms under similar conditions.
The amount of a fossil fuel that can be extracted at a profit using current technology.
An alternate energy source produced from atomic reactions.
A type of nuclear reaction which combines low mass atoms to form heavier ones.
Energy which comes either directly or indirectly from the sun.
When a large number of windmills are placed in one area for the purpose of generating electricity.
Electricity produced by waterpower.
Energy obtained by using hot magma or hot, dry rocks inside Earth.
Energy derived from burning organic material such as wood, alcohol, and garbage.
The idea that continents are moving around, slowly, on the surface of Earth.
The name given to the landmass when all continents were connected.
The plastic-like layer of earth found below the lithosphere.
The outermost layer of Earth, including the crust.
The theory of HOW Earth's crust is moved along due to convection currents in the Earth's mantle.
The creation of new oceanic crust as older crust is pushed away and replaced by cooling magma.