this is the percent of U.S. population that will develop cancer
this percent is the percent that will die of cancer-related cause Infection Bleeding Malnutrition
this is the amount of cancer deaths that occur ages greater than 65. 1/2 die from complications rather than cancer itself
these have No single cause they can be Cellular & molecular factors (genetic level) or even External factors
occur in one gene in one cell in one moment in time. its a cellular and molecular factor. they also can be Immunologic mechanisms or Hormones
these are things such as heredity, lifestyle, and the environment
this is an external factor such as Obesity Foods Tobacco
single greatest lifestyle risk
this is an external factor such as Chemicals Radiation Oncogenic viruses
these are foods that are cooked in an open grill. tar can get on them
sulfur and nitrogen foods that are often used as preservatives : bacon, sausage, deli meats
high fat diet
some tumors feed of byproducts of this ( estrogen)
high alcohol intake
this creates cell damage
low fiber intake
food sits in gut
clinical syndrome can occur any type of cell and tissue ( almost) Primarily disorder of DNA error within one cell, one DNA mechanical mutation Cancer is a genetic abnormality it can be hereditary but it may not be.
Abnormal cell differentiation and growth. some characteristics are same but its different than cells in that part of the body should be. Chaotic cell division, independent of normal growth signals. host dies or kills cells. Results in new growth - NEOPLASIA
Proliferation Differentiation Apoptosis
Process of cell division Normal cell replacement process new cells are born to replace dieing cells
Process of specialization of cell types New cells acquire structure & function of cells being replaced poorly differentiated; doesn't look like cell should look like. Loss of function due to abnormal cell.
Programmed cell death to replace old/unwanted cells Cell suicide- cells know how long life span should be.
regular life span of RBC
this is the life span of the cells in the colon
Cell growth rate
this = Cell death rate new cells grow in response to cells that are dying
Cell Growth Rules
Cells multiply only when growth-stimulating signal Cells respond to apoptosis Cell suicide message
DON'T obey growth rules Grow in absence of growth signal- genetic defect in cells allow them to do this. Unlimited replication possible
these can replicate so much that they can overwhelm the organs. pick up in bloodstream and deposit somewhere else in the body. they matasticise
Cancer & Genes
Proto-oncogenes Tumor suppression genes Genes that control apoptosis Genes that regulate repair of damaged DNA
before cancer control messages Over 60 identified Direct cell growth-activating pathways Overactivity increases proliferation (division of cells) Proliferation r/t cancer ( say how become cancer) Normal genes
Have normal cell to cell communication functions r/t: Growth factors Growth factor receptors Cytoplasmic signaling molecules Nuclear transcription factors HELP CONTROL COMMUNICATION FROM CELL TO CELL
Proto-oncogene to Oncogene
Abnormal cell growth signals Introduced into cell by retrovirus ( external to body that infects cell) Intracellular mutation Damaged or lost DNA sequence Chromosome replication error yields extra gene copies
Cancer & Mutant Genes
Tumor suppressor genes ( specific gene involved in production of cancer. function is to suppress or prevent growth of tumor cells) Inhibit cell proliferation Absence of tumor suppression function ( look and see if normal) Growth inhibition pathway abnormal in most cancers
Retinoblastoma- hereditary form of cancer growing in eye
Lacking in > 50% tumors
BRCA I, BRCA II
abnormalities can lead to breast cancer Breast CA Factor in all types of reproductive cancers - male & female only 10% related to abnormalities defect in the gene
more likely due to BRCA abnormalities
these individuals have prostate cancer, vesicular, breast cancer risks.
ALWAYS LOOK FOR THIS Most common tumor suppression defect Mediates action of chemotherapy & radiation to kill cancer. not responsive to some chemotherapy & radiation
this is the amount of tumors that lack functional P53 gene
Renal cell carcinoma
Differentiating Benign & Malignant Neoplasms
Manner of growth
Rate of growth
Potential for spread (metastasis)
Ability to destroy tissue and haste
Capacity to cause death
Slow, progressive growth that may stop or regress
Unable to spread to distant sites
Well-differentiated cells that resemble cell of origin. share the characteristics of normal cells that grow in that area.
benign neoplasms can they become large
true or false do benign neoplasms grow within their tissue in a specific area.
true - doesn't kill the person but may grow large.
Rapid, widespread growth
Potential to cause mortality
Compress vessels and outgrow their blood supply, leading to ischemia/necrosis
Steal nutrients from normal tissue( reason see weight loss)
Liberate toxins & enzymes that destroy tumor & normal tissue
growth in the arm that will not go into the blood stream is this benign or malignant
a prostate tumor that is growing outside the prostate is this benign or malignant?
grows outside area pick up in blood stream grow large can erode blood vessels and cause hemorrhage
common cause malignant tumor death
hemorrhage or infection
Direct invasion & extension ( direct contact)
Deposit of cancer cells in cavities
Metastasis via blood/lymph system erode microscopic blood and lymph vessels
DNA damage Malignant potential possible
Unregulated abnormal cell growth
Cancerous phenotype ( genetically established) Malignant cell established
metastasis is this guaranteed?
Cells penetrate basement membrane of blood/lymph vessels ( potential malignant cells deposited in tissue)
Abnormal growing cells migrate
Metastasis not guaranteed
< 1/ 10,000 migrating cells survive
Attacked by immune cells or apoptosis
most abnormal cells the bodies immune system attacks and kills. the immune function decreases across the lifespan that the reason you see more cancers in older individuals.
Tumor Grading & Staging
Necessary for treatment & prognosis
Grading - r/t cell histology ( degree of abnormalities how far different cancer cells are from normal cells) Staging - r/t clinical spread
this is determined by the degree of analpasia ( the extent of abnormality). this is not universal it can be numbers or letters.
"Lack of differentiated features in a cancer cell" they look much different in comparison of a normal cell
Specific histology Cell characteristics
Degree of abnormality
Ranking 1-3, 1-4
Higher number = higher malignancy potential is related to the higher the letter is in the alphabet.
Location & spread pattern
Several staging systems exist
Most common jargon is TNM T - Tumor N - Node M - Metastasis