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Campbell Biology in Focus (AP) Chapter 14
Terms in this set (50)
The process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of protein or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into protein and instead function as RNAs.
The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template.
A type of RNA, synthesized using a DNA template, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
The synthesis of polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.
A complex of rRNA and protein molecules that functions as a site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consisting of a large subunit and a small subunit. In eukaryotic cells, each subunit is assembled in the nucleolus.
An initial RNA transcript from any gene; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein-coding gene.
A genetic information system in which a set of three-nucleotide-long words specifies the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
The DNA strand that provides the pattern, or template, for ordering, by complementary base pairing, the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
On an mRNA, the triplet grouping of ribonucleotides used by the translation machinery during polypeptide synthesis.
An enzyme that links ribonucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription, based on complementary binding to nucleotides on a DNA template strand.
A specific nucleotide sequence in the DNA of a gene that binds RNA polymerase, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place.
In bacteria, a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene and signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule and detach from the DNA.
A region of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule.
In transcription, the nucleotide position on the promoter where RNA polymerase begins synthesis of RNA.
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes.
transcription initiation complex
The completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymeras bound to a promoter.
A DNA sequence in eukaryotic promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.
Modification of RNA primary transcripts, including splicing out of introns, joining together of exons, and alteration of the 5' and 3' ends.
A modified form of guanine nucleotide added onto the end of a pre-mRNA molecule.
A sequence of 50-250 adenine nucleotides added onto the 3' end of a pre-mRNA molecule.
After synthesis of a eukaryotic primary RNA transcript, the removal of portions of the transcript (introns) that will not be included in the mRNA and the joining together of the remaining portions (exons).
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed from the transcript during RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed.
A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed.
alternative RNA splicing
A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns.
A large complex made up of proteins and RNA molecules that splices RNA by interacting with the ends of an RNA intron, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons.
An RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme, such as an intron that catalyzes its own removal during RNA splicing.
An RNA molecule that functions as a translator between nucleic acid and protein languages by carrying specific amino acids to the ribosome, where they recognize the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
A nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that base-pairs with a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
An enzyme that joins each amino acid to the appropriate tRNA.
Flexibility in the base-pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5' end of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon.
RNA molecules that, together with proteins, make up ribosomes; the most abundant type of RNA.
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. Holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain. Stands for peptidyl tRNA.
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. Holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain. Stands for aminoacyl tRNA.
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. The place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome. Stands for exit.
A protein shaped like an aminoacyl tRNA that binds to the stop codon in the A site and hydrolyzes the bond between the polypeptide and the tRNA in the P site.
A sequence of about 20 amino acids at or near the leading (amino) end of a polypeptide that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum or other organelles in a eukaryotic cell.
A protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from a ribosome and helps direct the ribosome to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by binding to a receptor protein on the ER.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA or in the DNA or RNA of a virus.
A change in a single nucleotide pair of a gene.
A type of point mutation in which one nucleotide in a DNA strand and its partner in the complementary strand are replaced by another pair of nucleotides.
A nucleotide-pair substitution that has no observable effect on the phenotype; for example, within a gene, a mutation that results in a codon that codes for the same amino acid.
A nucleotide-pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
A mutation occurring when nucleotides are inserted in or deleted from a gene and the number inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the subsequent nucleotides into codons.
Mutations that arise by errors during DNA replication or recombination.
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and can cause a mutation.
A region of DNA that can be expressed to produce a final functional product that is either polypeptide or an RNA molecule.
he did not want a section 8 discharge, making him not able to lead a normal life or get a job
Where does the energy for RNA synthesis come from?
changing the shape of the repressor.
What are Chromosomal Disorders and examples?
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