Terms in this set (46)
How did the development of steel and oil refining affect the U.S. industry?
Steal had widespread industrial uses. Allowed stronger railways and buildings. The growing fuel was inexpensive and new inventions made it easier for machines to work.
What innovations were made in transportation in the late 1800s?
Railroads could lay more tracks because of the cheap and strength of steal, The horseless carriage: a self propelled vehicle and forerunner to the automobile. Airplanes.
How did innovations in communications technology change business practices and the daily lives of Americans?
Businesses were able communicate messages faster.
Why did Thomas Edison open a research laboratory? How did it change American life?
So he could create more inventions. His inventions helped American life become easier.
Efficient method of making steel, developed by British inventor Henry Bessemer and American William Kelly in the 1850s.
Exclusive right to manufacture or sell an invention.
Railroad that crossed the continental United States, completed 1869.
Major railroads connected to outlaying areas by feeder or branch lines.
Machine patented by Samuel Moorse in 1837 that sent messages over long distances by using electric current to transmit a system of dots and dashes over wire.
Edwin L. Drake
used a steam engine to drill for oil in 1859.
invented a lubricating cup that fed oil to parts of a machine while it was running.
Compressed air break increased railroad safety.
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the telephone.
Thomas Alva Edison
An inventor who invented the telegraph and made discoveries and advances in electricity.
Edison's assistant, A skilled draftsman, an expert in patent law, supported Edison in many court cases.
What arguments did business leaders and social critics make about the role government in business?
Leaders wanted to keep industry free of government, critics argued the rapid industrialization of factory life was harmful and unjust to the working class.
How did business strategies change in the Second Industrial Revolution?
They took part in owning shares of stock. Some formed trusts. If they control of an industry the company holds a monopoly.
How did entrepreneurs take advantage of changes in business organization?
They could get products cheaper and sell them fore more to make a bigger profit. The money they made would be used in ways such as establishing public libraries.
How did new methods of marketing products change American life?
brightly colored packaging, promoting brand names and products. Department stores became the domain of women; working and shopping.
Theory that opposes government regulation of economic matters.
Belief that the economy will prosper if business are left free from government regulation and allowed to compete in a free market.
Political theory that purposes individual ownership should not be allowed, but rather all people should collectively own property and the means of production.
Theory adapted by philosopher Herbert Spencer from Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, argued that society progressed through competition, with the fittest rising to positions of wealth and power.
Company that sells shares of ownership, called stock, to investors in order to raise money.
Arrangement grouping several companies under one board of directors to eliminate competition and to regulate production.
Exclusive economic control of an industry
Ownership of business involved in each step of a manufacturing process/
Ownership of several companies making the same product.
Invested money in railroad and iron industries which made him a wealthy man. Steel leader.
Horatio Alger Jr.
Published popular stories that reflected the increasing importance placed on individualism.
John D. Rockefeller
Founder of Standard Oil Company.
Operated a profitable shipping business. Extended his railroad system by buying smaller lines and then combined them.
Made long distance travel cars more comfortable. Made a massive passenger-railroad-car industry.
Why did some Americans demand that trusts be made illegal? How did the federal government respond?
The corporations grew in power, and without trusts they wouldn't be able to maintain the quality of their goods or keep the prices low.
What types of working conditions did laborers face in the new age of industrialization?
Long hour days, and for little pay. Children and women were forced to work also for as little as half the pay.
In what ways did the Knights of Labor attempt to address the needs of many workers?
A union to both skilled and unskilled workers. Fought for temperance, 8 hour workday, equal pay for equal work, and to end child labor.
How did businesses react to the strikes in the late 1800s? How did this affect unions?
Claimed that strikers were committing federal offense by preventing the delivery of U.S. mail.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Law that prohibited monopolies and trusts that restrained trade.
Knights of Labor
One of the first national labor unions in the United States, organized in 1869, after 1879 included workers of different races, genders, and skills.
Year of intense workers strikes and violent labor confrontations in the United States.
Incident in which a bomb exploded during a labor protest held in Haymarket Square in Chicago, killing several police offiicer.
People who oppose all forms of government.
American Federation of Labor
Union founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers for skilled workers.
Terence V. Powderly
Head of The Knights of Labor Union. Which expanded rapidly.
Mary Harris Jones
Women leader of The Knights of Labor, devoted herself to the labor movement.
Eugene V. Debs
an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World, and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States