40 terms

Ch 5,6 Electrons in Atoms and Periodic Table

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orbital
place where electrons are likely to be found
ground state
electron arrangement of lowest energy
spherical
shape of s orbital
dumbbell
shape of a p orbital
amplitude
height of a wave
frequency
number of events per unit time
hertz
SI unit of measure for frequency
meter
SI unit of measure for wavelength
ultraviolet
member of the electromagnetic spectrum with a frequency greater than visible light, neighbor to violet light
gamma
member of the electromagnetic spectrum with the greatest frequency
radio
member of the electromagnet spectrum with the longest wavelength
violet
member of the visible spectrum with the greatest frequency
prism
three dimensional block of material, often glass, used to separate the colors of light
hydrogen
element with the fewest lines in its emission spectrum
helium
element discovered by it absorption spectrum in sunlight
quantum
a "chunk" of electromagnetic radiant energy
uncertainty principle
idea that location and velocity cannot both be accurately known simultaneously
neon
lightest element with filled p orbitals
sodium
lightest element with a half-filled 3s orbital
calcium
lightest element with a completely filled 4s orbital
alkali metals
group name for the leftmost row of periodic table
ion
charged atom or group of atoms
periodic law
idea that properties of elements repeat themselvs on a regular basis
ionization energy
energy needed to remove an electron from an atom
noble gases
elements in the far right column of the periodic table
cation
an ion with a positive charge
representative elements
elements which are in groups IA through 7A
halogens
elements in the column just left of the noble gases
anion
an ion with a negative charge
atomic number
number which indicates the number of protons in an atom
metalloid
an element which has some properties of metals and also some properties of nonmetals
non-metals
elements which, in general, are poor conductors of heat and electricity and are brittle if they are solid.
atomic radius
half the distance between the nuclei of to atoms of the same element when the atoms are part of a molecule
molecule
a group of atoms held together by a chemical bond
electronegativity
the ability of atoms to attract electrons when the atoms are in a compound
period
another name for a row in the periodic table
nucleus
part of the atom which contains protons and neutrons
group
another name for a column in the periodic table
neutron
subatomic particle with no charge
electron
subatomic particle with negative charge