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32 terms

Cognitive Psychology Ch 3

Cognition, Theories and Applications by S.K. Reed. Ch 3 Study Cards
the selective aspects of attention, paying attention to some aspects of our environment while ignoring others
bottleneck theory
A theory that attempts to explain how people select information when some stages of info-processing become overloaded with too much information
mental effort
The amount of mental capacity required to perform a task.
capacity theory
A theory that proposed that we have a limited amount of mental effort to distribute across tasks, so there are limitations on the number of tasks we can perform at the same time
Broadbent Experiment
Experiment involved three pairs of digits present simultaneously in opposite ears over a period of 1/2 to 2 second intervals. Performance was better at longer intervals
Filter Model
The proposition that a bottleneck occurs at the pattern recognition stage and that attention determines what information reaches the pattern recognition stage.
limited-capacity perceptual channel
The pattern recognition stage of broadbent's filter model which is protected by the attention filter from becoming overloaded with information
an experimental method that requires people to repeat the attended message aloud
contextual effect
The influence of surrounding context on the recognition of patterns
Treisman's Attenuation Model
2 parts. a selective filter and a "dictionary" Does not block out information, merely attenuates it
the minimum amount of activation to become consciously aware of a stimulus
a decrease in the perceived loudness of an unattended message
Deutsch-Norman Memory Selection Model
assumed that the bottleneck occurs after pattern recognition, not before. messages are recognized, but only those selected into memory can later be recalled
Late-selection models
proposal that the bottleneck occurs when information is selected from memory
capacity model
implies that interference is non-specific and does not depend on the degree to which the tasks use the same mechanisms, but on the total demands of the task. assumes that a person has considerable control over how the limited capacity is allocated to different activities
allocation of capacity
When a limited amount of capacity is distributed to various tasks.
a physiological state that influences the distribution of mental capacity to various tasks
Kahneman's Model
amount of capacity available varies with the level of arousal, meant to supplement bottleneck theories
enduring disposition
An automatic influence where people direct their attention.
momentary intention
A conscious decision to allocate attention to certain aspects of the environment.
Johnston and Heinz
combined the bottleneck theories and capacity theory, multimode theory creators
multimode theory
A theory that proposes that people's intentions and the demands of the task determine the information processing stage at which information is selected, more capacity is required to perform at a late mode of selection, two lists requires more capacity than one list
subsidiary task
A task that typically measures how people can react to a target stimulus to evaluate the capacity demands of the primary task.
automatic processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, and a well-learned information
automatic skill
when a skill occurs without intention, does not give rise to conscious awareness and does not interfere with other mental activities
Stroop effect
Explains the decreased speed of naming the color of ink used to print words when the color of ink and the word itself are of different colors.
Automatic Encoding
tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long term memory with little or no effortful encoding
Hasher and Zacks
produced the theory of automatic encoding
frequency information
data that specifies how often different stimuli occur
spatial information
data about where objects occur in the environment
temporal information
data about how long or when long events occur
Posner and Snyder
determined the three criteria for a skill being automatic (occurs with out intention, doesnt give rise to concious awareness, doesnt interfere with other mental activities