Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

Cognition, Theories and Applications by S.K. Reed. Ch 3 Study Cards


the selective aspects of attention, paying attention to some aspects of our environment while ignoring others

bottleneck theory

A theory that attempts to explain how people select information when some stages of info-processing become overloaded with too much information

mental effort

The amount of mental capacity required to perform a task.

capacity theory

A theory that proposed that we have a limited amount of mental effort to distribute across tasks, so there are limitations on the number of tasks we can perform at the same time

Broadbent Experiment

Experiment involved three pairs of digits present simultaneously in opposite ears over a period of 1/2 to 2 second intervals. Performance was better at longer intervals

Filter Model

The proposition that a bottleneck occurs at the pattern recognition stage and that attention determines what information reaches the pattern recognition stage.

limited-capacity perceptual channel

The pattern recognition stage of broadbent's filter model which is protected by the attention filter from becoming overloaded with information


an experimental method that requires people to repeat the attended message aloud

contextual effect

The influence of surrounding context on the recognition of patterns

Treisman's Attenuation Model

2 parts. a selective filter and a "dictionary" Does not block out information, merely attenuates it


the minimum amount of activation to become consciously aware of a stimulus


a decrease in the perceived loudness of an unattended message

Deutsch-Norman Memory Selection Model

assumed that the bottleneck occurs after pattern recognition, not before. messages are recognized, but only those selected into memory can later be recalled

Late-selection models

proposal that the bottleneck occurs when information is selected from memory

capacity model

implies that interference is non-specific and does not depend on the degree to which the tasks use the same mechanisms, but on the total demands of the task. assumes that a person has considerable control over how the limited capacity is allocated to different activities

allocation of capacity

When a limited amount of capacity is distributed to various tasks.


a physiological state that influences the distribution of mental capacity to various tasks

Kahneman's Model

amount of capacity available varies with the level of arousal, meant to supplement bottleneck theories

enduring disposition

An automatic influence where people direct their attention.

momentary intention

A conscious decision to allocate attention to certain aspects of the environment.

Johnston and Heinz

combined the bottleneck theories and capacity theory, multimode theory creators

multimode theory

A theory that proposes that people's intentions and the demands of the task determine the information processing stage at which information is selected, more capacity is required to perform at a late mode of selection, two lists requires more capacity than one list

subsidiary task

A task that typically measures how people can react to a target stimulus to evaluate the capacity demands of the primary task.

automatic processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, and a well-learned information

automatic skill

when a skill occurs without intention, does not give rise to conscious awareness and does not interfere with other mental activities

Stroop effect

Explains the decreased speed of naming the color of ink used to print words when the color of ink and the word itself are of different colors.

Automatic Encoding

tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long term memory with little or no effortful encoding

Hasher and Zacks

produced the theory of automatic encoding

frequency information

data that specifies how often different stimuli occur

spatial information

data about where objects occur in the environment

temporal information

data about how long or when long events occur

Posner and Snyder

determined the three criteria for a skill being automatic (occurs with out intention, doesnt give rise to concious awareness, doesnt interfere with other mental activities

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording