Chapter 19 Study Guide: The Baby Boom
Terms in this set (41)
1948 Election Opponents
-Thomas Dewey (republican)
-Strom Thurmond (dixiecrat)
Issues of 1948 Election
-Truman's stance on Civil Rights split the Democratic Party
-Southern Democrats who protested civil rights
1952 Election Opponents
-Aldai Stevenson (democrat)
1952 Election Issues
-Ike chooses Nixon as VP
-Nixon was accused of accepting bribes and because of that he gives a speech known as the "Checkers speech"
1956 Election Opponents
1950s job trends
-majority were in white collar office positions instead of blue collar industrial jobs
-individuality was lost
Causes of Auto Culture
-cheap gas, easy credit, and advertising increased car sales.
-no public transport in suburbs so cars were necessary.
Effects of Auto Culture
-Interstate Highway Act
-highways made trucking and distance vacations much easier
-new towns were created
-railroad was not used as much
Interstate Highway Act
-authorized nationwide highway network (1956)
-41,000 miles of expressways uniting the US
-birth rate soared after soldiers returned home.
Causes of the Baby Boom
-GI Bill helped veterans rebuild their lives.
-Many families faced a housing crisis.
-Demand for goods and services exceeds supply.
-Increased production created new jobs.
-The nation suffers inflation and labor unrest.
Effects of the Baby Boom
-Businesses expand rapidly.
-Many Americans achieve job security.
-Many families move to the suburbs.
-The nation experiences unprecedented "baby boom."
-Americans enjoy increased leisure time.
-corporations that own smaller, unrelated companies.
-they diversified to protect themselves from downturns in individual industries.
-companies that offer similar products, service in many different places.
-the right to use a particular name and system emerged.
-buying material goods
-it came to be equated with success
Dr. Jonas Salk
-he developed the first vaccine effective against polio.
-they gave the vaccine to 2 million school children to test it.
Dr. Benjamin Spock
-he wrote "Baby and Child Care."
-he encouraged parents to see their children as individuals, and not apple a one-size-fits all philosophy on them.
The Fair Deal
-Taft Hartley Act is passed
-it overturned many union rights
-increased social security coverage
-provided for a crop-subsidy system to help farmers
-increased minimum wage from 40 to 65 cents/hour
-flood control projects
-national health insurance plan
-he faced strikes in 1946: higher prices, lower wages lead 4.5 million people to strike
-Truman eliminated segregation in the military
-cut the budget
-government support for big businesses
-the return of federal functions back to state and local government
- growing demand for military/foreign aid
- investigate effects on econ when govt reduced spending
- unacceptable political costs
-Ike upheld civil rights laws, but didn't create any new ones.
-He passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957---1st civil rights legislation enacted by Congress since Reconstruction and was mostly a voting rights bill.
Emergence of TV
-TV was 1st available in 1948 and was in 90% of all homes by 1960.
-The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulated communications.
-500 stations were broadcasting and reached large audiences by 1956.
GI Bill of Rights
-the last piece of New Deal legislation and hoped to avoid a repeat of the Bonus March of 1932.
-it eased veterans' return to civilian life.
-pays partial tuition, unemployment benefits, and provides loans.
premier of the soviet union after Stalin
Rock n Roll
-a mix of rhythm and blues, country, and pop music.
-appealed to newly affluent teens that could buy records.
-Elvis Presley and American Bandstand
-Many people with well-paid, secure jobs began to lose individuality.
-Companies rewarded teamwork, loyalty, encouraged conformity.
-Franchises helped standardize what people ate, thought, etc.
-being like your neighbor was the thing to do, nobody wanted to be the minority
-the shift from central urban areas into suburban areas.
Causes of Suburbanization
-returning veterans faced a housing crisis
Effects of Suburbanization
-developers used assembly lines to mass produce identical houses
Women's Roles in the 1950s
-women were glorified as roles of mothers and working in the house
-they were paid much less than men even for the same job
Describe the influence of religion on families and the Federal government during the 1950's.
-Congress added the phrase "Under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance.
-Ike said everyone should have a religious faith, no matter what it is.
-Little Leagues grew from 800 to 6,000 in the 1950's.
-The family that prays together stays together became a popular expression.
-"In God We Trust" was put on all money.
Describe the influence of TV on families in the 1950's.
-families found TV shows for everyone in the family to watch.
-TV Guide became very popular and TV dinners were very popular.
-Families didn't spend as much time talking with each other.
Describe the typical suburban male.
- "organization man"
-many were in service industries like sales, advertising, insurance, and communications.
What caused the changes in Pleasantville?
-Mary Sue and Bud come to Pleasantville and influence the town to stop conforming to society and begin doing what they want to do.
-this leads to the town changing color
Was the town really all that pleasant?
-No, People were not happy with the way that they had been living their whole life, and they wanted to change.