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Which of the following was the name given to the U.S. effort to deliver supplies including 2 million tons of food and coal by air to West Berlin in 1948-1949 in response to the Soviet blockade of the city?

Berlin airlift

The president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and former State Department official accused of being a communist was

Alger Hiss

Containment policy was based on the assumption that

the Soviet Union would constantly seek to expand.

After Mao Zedong's 1949 victory in China, Truman was

criticized by conservatives for not backing Chiang Kai-shek strongly enough

In 1957, President Eisenhower sent troops to protect black high school students in

Little Rock, Arkansas

The landmark 1954 Supreme Court decision which ruled that segregated "educational facilities [in public schools] are inherently unequal" and unconstitutional was

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

In the 1950s, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted and executed for

betraying atomic secrets to the Soviets

One result of the 1957 Soviet launch of Sputnik was that

the doctrine of massive retaliation became obsolete

What important fight against the institutional foundations of segregation was brought on by the actions of Rosa Parks?

the Montgomery, Alabama Bus Boycott

President Eisenhower's program included

running his administration on sound business principles

The Marshall Plan provided

massive economic assistance for Europe

The original purpose of NATO was to create a

mutual defense pact against the Soviet Union.

After World War II, Korea was taken from Japan and

divided along the 38th parallel between the occupying forces of the Soviets and the Americans

The 1944 GI Bill of Rights gave

veterans subsidies for education or opening a small business

The 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine declared that the United States' policy in the Middle East was to

use armed force to stop communist aggression

What 1947 U.S. policy is described in the following statement? "It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."

Truman Doctrine

The ________ Act of 1947 authorized the president to seek court injunctions to prevent strikes that endangered the national interest


The Soviet Union's aggressive policies after World War II, especially in Eastern Europe, were called extending the "Iron Curtain" by

Winston Churchill

The Wisconsin senator identified with wild charges about communists in government was

Joseph McCarthy

Eisenhower backed a new federally funded highway system, the largest public works project in U.S. history, because

he wanted to ensure safe passage out of threatened cities in case of nuclear attack

Eisenhower's secretary of state who advocated emphasizing massive retaliation with nuclear weapons rather than containment with conventional forces was

John Foster Dulles

Nixon's policy toward school desegregation was to

halt further federal efforts to force desegregation

Kennedy's initial approach to the race question was

exceedingly cautious

The key felony committed by Richard Nixon, which the Watergate tapes revealed, was

obstructing justice by instructing the CIA to persuade the FBI not to follow up its leads in the case

Ultimately, President Nixon

resigned from office

Racial discrimination by employers and formal racial segregation of all sorts were outlawed by the

Civil Rights Act of 1964

How does the text evaluate the overall impact of the Great Society?

It was a remarkable outpouring of important legislation, but its achievements were far short of what it had promised

The Vietcong ________ offensive in January 1968 caught the U.S. totally by surprise and caused great chaos throughout South Vietnam


In April 1961, the CIA-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba

failed because the Cuban people did not aid the invaders and the invaders were forced to surrender

In 1968, the low-key senator from Minnesota who challenged Lyndon Johnson for the Democratic party's nomination for the presidency was

Eugene McCarthy

The key evidence in the Watergate Affair, several pieces of which were deliberately erased or disposed of, were Nixon's

secret tape recordings of White House conversations and telephone calls

President Richard Nixon's principal plan for ending the American commitment in the Vietnam conflict was

building up the South Vietnamese army in order to withdraw American troops

The leader of the nonviolent civil rights movement was

Martin Luther King, Jr

Early in 1970, Americans learned of a massacre by U.S. forces of defenseless villagers in

My Lai

Nixon's new policy of trying to relax tensions with the Chinese and the Soviets was called


During the Cuban missile crisis, President Kennedy ordered a

naval blockade of Cuba

In the ________ Resolution of 1964, Congress gave President Johnson a blank check for the war in Vietnam

Gulf of Tonkin

The ________ Trail was the major supply route from North to South Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh

The Watergate scandal began on June 17, 1972 when burglars from the Committee to Re-elect the President were arrested while

installing eavesdropping devices at the Democratic party headquarters

The Warren Report on the assassination of President Kennedy did not end charges of a conspiracy because it

protected information about CIA assassination attempts against Fidel Castro

Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X of the Black Muslims urged solving racial turmoil by

rejecting white American society

While millions of Americans watched on television, police used force against unruly protesters at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in

Chicago, Illinois

Harry Truman called his national policies and programs the

Fair Deal

In February 1972, Nixon dramatically reversed previous American policy by visiting and establishing relations with



Industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated millions of dollars to help build _______________.

Joseph Pulitzer

The first newspaper editor to reach a truly massive audience without abandoning his basic integrity was ________________________.


In 1869, __________ introduced the elective system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age.


The __________________ land-grant university system was co-educational from the start.


________________ College holds the distinction of being the first college for women.

Herbert Spencer

The most influential social Darwinist was the English thinker ___________________.

John Dewey

The educator __________________ insisted that education was the fundamental method of social progress.

Fredrick Jackson Turner

In his frontier thesis, _______________________ argued that the frontier gave Americans their unique character.

Mark Twain

The author of novels such as Huckleberry Finn, whose acute reportorial eyes and ears caught the spirit of his age, was ____________________.


The effects of Darwinism in America were apparent in the philosophy of __________, which stated that all truths are constantly evolving and can be judged only by their concrete results.


Among the basic factors that affected whether people voted for Republicans or Democrats in the late nineteenth century were their ethnic backgrounds and ________.


Big-city political bosses and their machines emerged in the late nineteenth century because most ___________ knew little about democracy.


Big-city bosses inadvertently played a major part in ___________ the immigrants.

Boss Tweed

The most notorious of all city bosses was __________.

Ohio and New York

The group of "swing" states which gained unusual prominence in presidential elections because of the sectional nature of politics in the late nineteenth century included _________ and ______________.


The Gilded Age Republicans, who were led by Roscoe Conkling and who believed in the blatant pursuit of the spoils of office, were called the ____________.

James A. Garfield

In 1881 President ________ was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, an unbalanced office-seeker.

Civil Service

The Pendleton Act of 1883 was a triumph for those Americans who sought _________ reform.


The New York Democrat who won the "dirty" presidential election of 1884 was ________.

James E. Blaine

One of the few politicians of his generation deeply interested in foreign affairs and an outstanding congressional leader who lost the election of 1884 because of the political scandal revealed by the "Mulligan letters" was _________________.

Mid 1880's

Throughout the _______________ farmers on the Plains experienced adequate rainfall and bountiful harvests.

Farmers Alliance

The earlier group from which the Populist movement emerged was the ____________.

James Weaver

In 1892 the Populist nominee for president was former Union General ____________.

Income Tax

The platform of the People's or Populist party called for a ________________.

Southern Black Farmers

The Populist strategy in the South was to lure _____________ away from the Democrats.


The election of 1892 seemed to set up a showdown in the election of 1896 on the issue of the ________________.


During 1894 and 1895, at the beginning of ____________ presidency, the economy floundered in one of the worst depressions in American history.

Jacob Coxey

The small-town businessman who led an "army" of the unemployed on a march to Washington, D.C. in 1894 was ________________.

J.P. Morgan

In early 1895 when the Treasury's gold reserves reached a desperately low point, a banking syndicate headed by ________________ underwrote a new bond issue and saved the government from bankruptcy.

William Jennings Bryan

The dramatic "Cross of Gold" speech won the 1896 Democratic presidential nomination for _____________________.

William Jennings Bryan

______________ discarded tradition in 1896 by traveling throughout the country giving hundreds of speeches.

Mark Hannah

In the election of 1896, McKinley's campaign manager who raised an enormous campaign fund from business was ____________________.


One of the roots of progressivism was the late-nineteenth century effort to ____________ and control big business.


A leading ________________ and crusading reformer of the early twentieth century was S.S. McClure.


Progressive-era journalists who investigated corruption and fraud in American business and politics were called _________________.


The progressives attempted their first political reforms in the _____________.

Progressive Mayors

Samuel M. "Golden Rule" Jones, Tom L. Johnson, and Seth Low were all _____________.

City Manager

The ________ plan was an urban reform, pioneered in Dayton, Ohio, whereby city affairs are administered on a nonpartisan basis by a professional.


The banner "progressive" state during the early years of the twentieth century was ________________.

Triangle Shirt Waist

Legislation protecting workers against on-the-job accidents was inspired by the disastrous ________________________ factory fire.


On the national level, the Progressive Era saw the completion of the struggle for women's ________________.

Moral Superiority

One of the suffragists' more successful justifications was the "purity" argument that women's ___________________ would clean up politics if they were given the vote.

17th Amendment

One example of the progressive drive for political democracy was the _________________, which required the popular election of senators.


Theodore Roosevelt believed that the most effective means of dealing with big corporations was to _______________ rather than eliminate them.

Northern Securities Company

Roosevelt reacted to the creation of the __________________ by suing to have it dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Square Deal

The first progressive president and the advocate of the "_______________" was Theodore Roosevelt.

Hepburn Act

The primary result of the 1906 _________________ was to make the Interstate Commerce Commission more powerful and active.

The Jungle

Upton Sinclair's novel _________________ exposed filthy conditions in Chicago slaughterhouses.

William Howard Taft

Theodore Roosevelt handpicked __________ to succeed him and carry out his policies.

Theodore Roosevelt

The politician who advocated a New Nationalism was _______________.

Republican Party

In 1912 the breakup of the __________________ produced an independent third party, the Progressives, led by Theodore Roosevelt.

New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson advocated a program called the _________________.

Federal Reserve

When it was passed in 1913, the ________________ gave the country a central banking system for the first time since Andrew Jackson.


As part of the New Freedom, the _________ Act prohibited both price discrimination, which encouraged monopolies, and interlocking directorates created to control competition.


When it came to non-whites, the _________ tended to be strongly prejudiced against them.

William. E. B. Du Bois

One of the most prominent black militants of the progressive era was ______________________.


The organization formed in 1909 by a group of liberal whites and blacks to eradicate racial discrimination was the _________________________.


During the Civil War, __________ established a protectorate over Mexico and installed Archduke Maximillian as emperor.


In 1867, the United States purchased Alaska from ____________________

God's will

One reason for growing support for an overseas empire among Americans after the Civil War was the desire to carry out ___________________ to spread the virtues of the Anglo-Saxon race beyond North America.


Alfred Thayer Mahan argued in the 1890s that national security and prosperity rested on a powerful ___________________.


Queen Liliuokalani's "Hawaii for Hawaiians" movement led to an American led _____________ and the abolition of the monarchy.


President ____________________ reaction to the possibility of annexing Hawaii was to withdraw the treaty annexing Hawaii from the Senate, but he was unwilling to oust the American revolutionaries by force.

Monroe Doctrine

Americans had stronger reasons for extending their influence in Latin America rather than in the Pacific because they were accustomed to protecting American interests in Latin America under the _____________________.


In the 1890s a nasty dispute erupted between the United States and Great Britain over the boundary between _____________________ and British Guiana.


The major issue in the Spanish-American War was the independence of _________________.

New York Journal and New York World

Before the Spanish-American War, both Hearst's________________ and Pulitzer's___________________________ tried to increase circulation by publishing tales of Spanish atrocities.


In February 1898, the American battleship the __________ mysteriously exploded in Havana harbor.

Amelio Hemegualdo

The leader of the Filipino nationalist forces during the 1890s was ______________________.


In the first battle of the Spanish-American War, Commodore ___________________ devastated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.

Rough Riders

The American politician who formed a volunteer unit, the "____________________," and participated in storming San Juan Hill was Theodore Roosevelt.


After the Spanish-American War, heated debates raged over the imperialism of annexing the ___________________________.

Asian Markets

Expansionists who wished to annex the Philippines seemed most interested in establishing the Philippines as the gateway to ______________________.

Gorilla War Revolt

When America refused to withdraw its armed forces, the Filipinos launched a _________________________ against the American forces.

Guantanamo Bay Navy Base

Under the Platt Amendment, Cuba promised to grant ____________________ to America and to avoid treaties with any foreign power, which might compromise its independence.

Roosevelt Corollary

Early in the twentieth century, the United States announced that it must "exercise international police power" in the Western Hemisphere in the ________________________ to the Monroe Doctrine.

China Markets

The "Open Door" policy attempted to preserve the chances for American business to enter the markets of ______________________.


When Panama revolted against Colombia, _______________________ ordered the cruiser Nashville to Panama to prevent Colombia from subduing the revolution.

World War 1

The Panama Canal opened for ship traffic on the eve of __________________.


President __________ called his policy of influencing other countries without actually controlling them "dollar diplomacy."


Wilson became deeply involved in Mexican politics in response to the reactionary general __________, who led the 1913 coup and had his former chief murdered.


In 1916, United States troops, commanded by General John J. Pershing, invaded __________ to capture "Pancho" Villa.


The Great War was precipitated by the ___________________ of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by a Serbian nationalist.


At the outbreak of the Great War in 1914, the ______________ Powers included Great Britain, France, and Russia.

Freedom of The Seas

American attitudes towards the two sides in the Great War were most influenced by conflicts over ______________________.


In the presidential election of _______________, the leading issue was American policy toward the warring powers.


In February 1917, the U.S. learned of the __________ Telegram in which Germany offered a military alliance to Mexico if the U.S. entered the war on the Allied side.

War Industries Board

During the Great War, the government agency which had almost dictatorial powers to allocate scarce materials and fix prices was the _______________________.

Harry Truman

This future American political leader commanded an artillery battalion in France during the Great War was ________________________.


During the Great War, the federal government asked citizens to buy ______________________.

Committee of Public Information

The head of the ____________________________________, which portrayed Germany as determined to dominate the world, was George Creel.


During the Great War, mere criticism of the government became cause for arrest and imprisonment under the __________ Act.

Southern Blacks

The Great War triggered a major movement of ____________________ to northern cities.

Black African Americans

Most ___________________________ reacted to the Great War with optimism that the walls of prejudice were beginning to crumble.

Argonne Forrest

In their greatest engagement of the war, in September 1918, despite the heavy loss of 120,000 casualties, American troops won the Battle of __________________________.

14 Points

President Wilson's plan for a lasting peace after the Great War was known as the __________________________.

Big 4

Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and Vittorio Orlando were members of the so-called __________________ at the Paris Peace Conference.


The peace settlement reached at the Paris conference of 1919 was called the __________ Treaty.

League of Nations

Wilson believed that any weaknesses in the Versailles Treaty could be overcome by the ________________________.


The leader of the __________________ opposition in the Senate to Wilson's League of Nations was Henry Cabot Lodge.

Versailles Treaty

When it appeared as if the necessary two-thirds of the Senators would not approve the ______________________________, without reservations, Wilson attempted to rally support for the Treaty by a nationwide speaking tour.


The basic reason why the ______________________ failed to ratify the Versailles Treaty was the refusal of both Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge to compromise.

A. Mitchell Palmer

In the 1919-1920 "Red Scare," radicals were ruthlessly suppressed by Attorney General _____________________________________________.

The Coinage Act of 1873, which demonetized silver, came to be known as the ________ by the silver interests.

Crime of '73

The "bloody shirt" issue of the late 1800s refers to

post-Civil War sectional tensions

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