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33 terms

Chapter 8 plate tectonics

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collision boundary
A convergent boundary where two continents have come together and are welded into a single, larger continent
continental drift
A hypothesis that the Earth's continents move on the Earth's surface
convergent boundary
A boundary between two plates that are moving towards each other
craton
The ancient core of a continent, which is tectonically stable
deep-sea trench
A long, narrow, steep-sided trough that runs parallel to continental margins or volcanic island chains
divergent boundary
a boundary between two lithospheric plates that are moving apart
mantle convection
A process by which heat from Earth's inner and outer cores is transferred through the mantle
mid-ocean ridge
A long chain of mountains with a central rift valley that is located along a divergent boundary on the ocean floor
Pangaea
The name of a hypothetical landmass consisting of all the continents welded together
plate tectonics
The theory that the lithosphere is made of plates that move and interact with each other at their boundaries
ridge push
A force that is exerted by the cooling, subsiding rock on the spreading lithospheric plates at a mid-ocean ridge
rift
A crack or opening in the Earth's crust
rift valley
A deep valley at a point where two lithospheric plates are moving apart, such as a mid ocean ridge
slab pull
A force at a subduction boundary that the sinking edge of the subducting plate exerts on the rest of the plate
subduction boundary
A convergent boundary where an oceanic plate is plunging beneath another
terrane
A large block of lithospheric plate that has been moved, often over a distance of thousands of kilometers, and attached to the edge of a continents
transform boundary
A boundary between two plates that are sliding by each other
contintental drift
Alfred Wegener was a German scientist who proposed the hypothesis called _________________ ____________.
continents
Wegener's hypothesis was not accepted by the scientific community because he did not explain how the _______________________ moved
South America and Africa
Wegener used the outline of the continents of __________________ ______________ and ___________________ so support his theory that the continents used to be together.The continents looked like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle
Fossil / climate
Wegener used similarities in the shapes of the continents, and ___________ evidence and _____________ evidence to suport his theory that the continents where once joined
mid ocean ridge
The discovery of this helped support the theory of plate tectonics
plate boundaries
Earthquake and volcanic activity support the theory of plate tectonics because they mark the locations of __________________ ________________.
ring of fire
Name of the area of concentrated volcanic and earthquake activity located in the Pacific Ocean
mid ocean ridge
The age of the rock on the ocean floor gets older with increasing distance from the ______________ _______________ __________________.
dense
When two oceanic plates converge, the more __________________ oceanic plate subducts
mountains
When two continental plates converge, the likely feature will high continental _________________
continental
Volcanic mountain chains form when an oceanic plate subducts beneath a/an ________________ plate
oceanic
Volcanic island chains are likely to form when an oceanic plate subducts beneath a/an __________________ plate
earthquake
subduction boundaries have both eartyquake and volcanic activity, but transform boundaries and collision boundaries only have _____________________ activity
collision
The Appalachian Mountains formed from a ___________________ boundary between North America and Africa.
Himalaya
Mountain chain currently being formed from the result of a collision boundary
Terranes
Sources of continental growth include deep-sea sediments, igneous rock, river sediments, and _________________________.