67 terms

Industrial Revolution

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Karl Marx
Socialist, wrote "Das Kapital" and "The Comunist Manifesto"
Jethro Tull
invented a machine that planted seeds equal length apart- seed drill
Robert Owen
utopian socialist, believed on sharing wealth. Made factory urbanizations one in england that succeded and one in the colonies that did not. Founder of the Smithsonian Institucion.
Robert Fulton
an American inventor and engineer. He is best known for establishing the first successful line of steam-powered ships. He focused his efforts on inland waterways and shipbuilding, including designs for canals and prototypes for submarines. In 1814 he was commissioned by the federal government to build its first steam warship.
James Hargreaves
invented a machine called the spinning jenny, which made the spinning process much faster. In fact, spinners produced thread faster than weavers could use it.
Richard Arkwright
water frame (needed for power outside from river) First one that could be powred by non human
Edmund Cartwright
Invented a water-powered loom; made it possible for the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of thread. It was now more efficient to bring workers to the new machines and have them work in factories near streams and rivers, which were used to power many of these early machines.
George Stephenson
English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway
Thomas Newcomen
invented method of sucking water out of coal mines
Richard Trevithick
an English engineer, built the first steam locomotive. In 1804 Trevithick's locomotive ran on an industrial rail line in Britain.
Robert Bakewell
developed selective breeding and scientific mangement
Thomas Coke
invented method to make pig iron to pure iron
Henry Cort
developed a process called puddling. In this process, coke, which was derived from coal, was used to burn away impurities in crude iron, called pig iron, and to produce an iron of high quality.
Enclosure
Parliamentary decree that allowed fencing off of common lands.
Enclosure movement laws caused
many peasants to move to towns. (Enclosure movement laws were passed after a dramatic increase in population)
Socialism
System in which society owns and controls the means of production.
cottage industry
a method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes
Three-Field System
the village's land was divided into three huge fields. Each farmer would be assigned strips in the fields (according to their wealth). There was extra common land which was free for all villagers to use to keep a few geese, pigs or even a cow. Two fields would be used to grow cereal crops while the third field was left to lie fallow and recover its fertility.

The system was very inefficient. It would not have been sufficient to feed the country's growing population without changes. Later on, many couldn't afford the costs of enclosure and were forced to sell their holdings to richer farmers and move into cities.
entrepreneur
a person who finds new business opportunities and new ways to make profits
capital
money available for investment
Building railroads created new jobs for farm laborers and peasants. How?
Less expensive transportation led to lower-priced goods, thus creating larger markets. More sales meant more demand and the need for more factories and more machinery. Business owners could reinvest their profits in new equipment, adding to the growth of the economy.
Spinning Jenny
is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It held eight threads and could be operated by turning a single wheel. The machine produced relatively weak yarn, but the device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce it.
The Steam Engine
is a machine that uses heat from steam power to perform mechanical work. In a steam engine, hot steam, usually supplied by a boiler, expands under pressure, and part of the heat energy is converted into work.
Why were Britain's entrepreneurs successful in starting businesses, and thus the Industrial Revolution?
Entrepreneurs had money to invest in new businesses.
What helped make Great Britain the starting place for the Industrial Revolution?
improved transportation
One of the first important products for Britain's manufacturers was
cotton cloth.
How did the steam engine change the entire factory system when textiles were being produced?
Factories spread all over the country, close to workers, because steam engines were fired by coal, not powered by water, so factories did not need to be located near rivers.
What did the spinning jenny produce?
more thread than weavers could use
The iron industry expanded during the Industrial Revolution because
iron was used to build trains and railroads. (Henry Cort invented a process called puddling, which produced a higher quality of iron)
How did factories change society in order to make the Industrial Revolution a success?
Factories created a new labor class and a system of shift work that kept the machines running nonstop. (Factory owners wanted to produce as much as they possibly could)
Governments encouraged industrialization in Europe by
providing money to build the necessary means of transportation. (By 1850, one of the following resulted in a network of rails to spread across Europe)
What was one result of extreme urbanization?
a need for urban reform (Rapid urbanization resulted in pitiful living conditions for many).
Which were the 2 new social class in the Industrial Revolution?
Bourgeoisie (the people who owned the factories[production, distribution, exchange]) and the Proletarian (workers who worked in towns/employed workers).
Urbanization
The process where an increasing percentage of population lives in cities and suburbs. This process is often linked to industrialization, as large numbers of people leave farms to work and live in cities.
Coke
Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal.
While coke can be formed naturally, the commonly used form is man-made. Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
What is the factory system?
System of manufacturing that began in the 18th century (with the development of the power loom and the steam engine.) Based on making industries into large establishment - contrasted with domestic system.
Power Loom
Looms were used to weave clothing. This new type of loom was key to the industrial revolution. It was created by Edmund Cartwright and the machine runs on water. Weaving was able to catch up with the spinning of thread. It was now more efficient to bring workers to the new machines and have them work in factories near streams and rivers, which were used to power many of these early machines.
Steam Ship
A ship that is propelled by a steam engine.
Locomotive
Richard Trevithick, an English engineer, built the first steam locomotive. A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. In 1804 Trevithick's locomotive ran on an industrial rail line in Britain. Better locomotives soon followed. One called the Rocket was used on the first public railway line, which opened in 1830 and extended 32 miles (51.5 km) from Manchester to Liverpool.
Communism
Most extreme form of socialism in which governments control production, distribution and exchange. Means of production are owned in common.
Turnpike
Turnpike roads were set up by local businessmen, traders and other investors. Under the Turnpike Act, they could build new roads or assume responsibility for existing roads. To finance their projects, a trust was allowed to collect a fee from every traveler using one of its roads. The fee, or toll, was collected at each end of each section of the road. In these places, a gate and a toll keeper's cottage were positioned.
Four field system
New method of crop rotation on farms. Fields divided fields into four different types of produce with wheat in the first field, clover (or ryegrass) in the second, oats or barley in the third and, in the fourth, turnips or swedes. Idea introduced by Viscount Townshend
Selective breeding
Intentional mating of two animals to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or for the elimination of a trait
Luddites (Luddism)
19th century "terrorists" who were working men whose jobs had been taken away by factories and new inventions. As a result, they burned down factories.
Proletariat
The industrial working class (lower class/workers)
Methodism
An 18th-century movement founded by John Wesley that sought to reform the Church of England from within. Stresses both personal and social morality.
Utilitarianism
A system of ethics in which rightness or wrongness of an action should be judged by its consequences. Its goal is to promote the most happiness for the most people.
What is the domestic system?
a system of manufacturing based upon work done at home on materials supplied by merchant employers —contrasted with factory system (compare cottage industry.)
Blast Furnace
The iron making blast furnace itself is built in the form of a tall chimney-like structure lined with refractory brick. Coke, limestone flux, and iron ore (iron oxide) are charged into the top of the furnace in a precise filling order which helps control gas flow and the chemical reactions inside the furnace.
Flying Shuttle
The flying shuttle was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. It allowed a single weaver to weave much wider fabrics, and it could be mechanized, allowing for automatic machine looms.
Seed Drill
A seed drill is a sowing device that sows the seed precisely in the soil at proper depth and distance. Then it covers them with soil. It protects the seeds from birds and saves time and labour.
Water Frame
The water frame is derived from the use of a water wheel to drive a number of spinning frames. The water wheel provided more power to the spinning frame than human operators, reducing the amount of human labor needed and increasing the spindle count dramatically. However, unlike the spinning jenny, the water frame could only spin one thread at a time until Samuel combined the two inventions into his spinning mule in 1779.
Power Loom
A power loom is a mechanized loom powered by a line shaft and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution started in Britain Partly because its rivers provided
transportation and power
Why did coal production expand greatly during the Industrial Revolution
Coal was needed to produce iron and to run steam engines
How did the railroads guarantee the success of the of the Industrial revolution
Goods could be moved faster from the factories to the places they would be sold at
Where did the first locomotive travel from and where did it arrive?
from manchester to liverpool
Industrialization spread rapidly in both Europe and the United States thanks to
railroads
John Wesley
Methonism founder
Townshed
Promoted the 4 field system
Abraham Darby
Darby developed a method of producing pig iron in a blast furnace fuelled by coke rather than charcoal
John Kay
Flying suttle
Samuel Crompton
Samuel Crompton was an English inventor and pioneer of the spinning industry. Building on the work of James Hargreaves and Richard Arkwright he invented the spinning mule, a machine that revolutionised the industry worldwide
Stephenson
Built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
Malthus
Had a theory on population that as long as there is more food the population, not quality, will increase.
Pasteur
French biologist microbiologist and chemist for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization
Bell
Telephone
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