Excelsior U.S. History Unit 5 (Ch. 15)

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Franklin Delano Roosevelt
The Democratic President and former governor of New York who was a distant cousin of former President Theodore Roosevelt. His first act as President was to close all the nations banks and order an inspection under the Emergency Banking Relief Act. FDR had a number of his ideas passed into laws, including Social Security, federal housing loans, and the establishment of regional planning authorities. FDR was well -known for his compassion, determination, and self-confidence.
New Deal
The name given FDR's program designed to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression. It's goals included regulation of the stock market along with other financial reform and economic recovery from the Great Depression as well as relief for the needy. Despite its many benefits, the New Deal did not get America fully out of the depression. America really left the Great Depression when WWII began and there were new work opportunities and increased spending.
Glass-Steagall Act
The Congressional Act which established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in 1933 which reassured bank customers that their money was safe and required banks to act cautiously with their customer's money.
Federal Securities Act
The Congressional Act which required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable for any misrepresentations.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Part of the New Deal, the rural assistance legislation which tried to raise crop prices by lowering production or reducing surplus to increase prices. This was achieved by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of every acre of land unseeded.
Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)
The program to provide relief through work projects and cash payments which had young men build roads, develop parks, and plant trees.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
The program created to provide money to states to create jobs through the construction of schools and other community buildings.
deficit spending
Spending more money than the government receives in revenue. In fact, during the first administration of President Roosevelt, the national debt reached a new high.
Huey Long
The Senator from Louisiana who opposed the New Deal and created a program called Share-the-Wealth. He was going to run for President, but he was assassinated.
Eleanor Roosevelt
The wife of President Roosevelt and a social reformer who combined her deep humanitarian impulses with great political skills. She helped to shape domestic policy.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
A program under the Second New Deal which set out to create as many jobs as possible as quickly as possible. Under the program, over 850 airports were built, 651,000 miles of roads and streets were repaired, and 125,000 public buildings were constructed. This helped more than 8 million people find work. The major criticism of the program believed that people were paid to do worthless projects.
National Youth Administration
A program created specifically to provide education, jobs, counseling and recreation for young people.
Wagner Act
One of the first reforms of the Second New Deal which reestablished the NIRA provision of collective bargaining.
Social Security Act
One of the most important achievements of the New Deal which set up insurance for retirees and their spouses, an unemployment compensation system, and aid to families with dependent children and the disabled. This is the most long-lasting program of the New Deal with the biggest long-term effect on the economy.
Frances Perkins
The first woman cabinet member in America.
Mary McLeod Bethune
Chosen to head up the Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration. She helped to organize the "Black Cabinet," influential African Americans who helped to advise FDR and his administration on racial issues.
John Collier
The Commissioner of Indian affairs who helped create the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 which extremely changed the governmental policy.
New Deal Coalition
An alignment of diverse groups dedicated to supporting the Democratic party
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
The created to help organize unions for unskilled and semi-skilled workers.
Gone with the Wind
The most famous film of the 1930s and one of the most popular of all time. If inflation is accounted for, Gone with the Wind is actually the highest grossing box office movie of all time.
Orson Welles
Actor, director, producer and writer who created the most renowned radio broadcast of all time, "The War of the Worlds."
Grant Wood
The artist who created the famous painting, American Gothic, in 1930.
Richard Wright
African-American author who used the Federal Writer's Project from the New Deal to write "Native Son" about a young man trying to survive in a racist world
The Grapes of Wrath
Considered as one of the best American novels, this book written by John Steinbeck (who also received assistance from the Federal Writer's Project) about a family who survives the Great Depression and moves from the Dust Bowl of Oklahoma to California.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Set up by Roosevelt's New Deal to regulate banking as his first act as President.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Set up by Roosevelt's New Deal to regulate investment activities
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Created under the Wagner Act, they continue to act as a mediator in labor disputes between unions and employers.
parity
the price intended to keep a farmer's income steady and used to determine the value of a loan.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Harnessed water power to generate electricity and to help prevent disastrous floods in the Tennessee Valley.
Southern Democrats
Roosevelt was so afraid of upsetting this important group of voters that he didn't fight more for civil rights.
Fireside Chats
A radio show that President Roosevelt used to speak to the nation about important events and news. The radio had become increasingly popular and at that time the President used it to speak to Americans, as an easy way to spread world news, as well as a source of entertainment.

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