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25 terms

Med Surg Chapter 32/33/34

Vocabulary
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Anemia
Reduction in the number of red blood cells or in the quantity of hemoglobin in the blood
Ecchymosis
Purplish skin lesions resulting from blood leaking out of the blood vessels
Hemostasis
Control of bleeding
Orthostatic Vital Sign Changes
Changes in the vital signs as a person moves from lying to sitting to standing positions in which the pulse increases by 20 beats per minute and the blood pressure decreases by 20 mm Hg, indicating that the patient is hypovolemic
Oxygenation
Transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues
Petechiae
Small (1 to 3 mm) red or purple spots on the skin resulting from capillaries breaking and leaking small amounts of blood into the tissues
Purpura
Red or reddish purple skin lesions measuring 3 mm or more resulting from blood leaking outside the blood vessels
Universal Donor
Person with type O-negative blood who can donate blood to anyone because the individual does not have any of the common antigens present in the blood
Universal Recipient
Person with type AB-positive blood who can receive transfusions with any type of blood because the individual has all the common antigens (A,B, and Rh) present in the blood
Acquired Immunity
Antibody- or cell-mediated response that is specific to a particular pathogen and is activated when needed
Antibody
Protein that is created in response to a specific antigen
Antibody-Mediated Immunity
Defensive response by B cells assisted by TH cells that is aimed at invading microorganisms such as bacteria
Antigen
Substance, usually a protein, that is capable of stimulating a response from the immune system
Cell-Mediated Immunity
Defensive response to Tc cells aimed at intracellular defects such as viruses and cancer
Compromised Host Precautions
Actions taken to help protect patients with low white blood cell counts from infection
Eicosanoid
Class of fatty acids that regulate blood vessel vasodilation, temperature elevation, white blood cell activation, and other physiologic
Immunity
Resistance to or protection from a disease
Immunoglobulin
Membrane-bound, Y-shaped binding proteins produced by B lymphocytes
Innate Immunity
Defensive system that is operational at all times consisting of anatomic and physiologic barriers, the inflammatory response and the ability of certain cells to phagocytose invaders
Pathogen
Disease-causing microorganism
Phagocytes
Certain white blood cells that engulf and destroy invading pathogens, dead cells, and cellular debris
AIDS
An advanced stage of human immunodeficiency viral infection that weakens the bodies immune system, progressively destroying that bodies ability to fight pathogens and certain cancers
HAART
Combination of antiretroviral drugs that may be prescribed when the HIV viral load reaches certain levels
HIV
Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus
Protease Inhibitor
Class of medications used to treat or prevent such viral infections as HIV and hepatitis C. These medications prevent viral replication by inhibiting the activity of protease