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Reduction in the number of red blood cells or in the quantity of hemoglobin in the blood


Purplish skin lesions resulting from blood leaking out of the blood vessels


Control of bleeding

Orthostatic Vital Sign Changes

Changes in the vital signs as a person moves from lying to sitting to standing positions in which the pulse increases by 20 beats per minute and the blood pressure decreases by 20 mm Hg, indicating that the patient is hypovolemic


Transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues


Small (1 to 3 mm) red or purple spots on the skin resulting from capillaries breaking and leaking small amounts of blood into the tissues


Red or reddish purple skin lesions measuring 3 mm or more resulting from blood leaking outside the blood vessels

Universal Donor

Person with type O-negative blood who can donate blood to anyone because the individual does not have any of the common antigens present in the blood

Universal Recipient

Person with type AB-positive blood who can receive transfusions with any type of blood because the individual has all the common antigens (A,B, and Rh) present in the blood

Acquired Immunity

Antibody- or cell-mediated response that is specific to a particular pathogen and is activated when needed


Protein that is created in response to a specific antigen

Antibody-Mediated Immunity

Defensive response by B cells assisted by TH cells that is aimed at invading microorganisms such as bacteria


Substance, usually a protein, that is capable of stimulating a response from the immune system

Cell-Mediated Immunity

Defensive response to Tc cells aimed at intracellular defects such as viruses and cancer

Compromised Host Precautions

Actions taken to help protect patients with low white blood cell counts from infection


Class of fatty acids that regulate blood vessel vasodilation, temperature elevation, white blood cell activation, and other physiologic


Resistance to or protection from a disease


Membrane-bound, Y-shaped binding proteins produced by B lymphocytes

Innate Immunity

Defensive system that is operational at all times consisting of anatomic and physiologic barriers, the inflammatory response and the ability of certain cells to phagocytose invaders


Disease-causing microorganism


Certain white blood cells that engulf and destroy invading pathogens, dead cells, and cellular debris


An advanced stage of human immunodeficiency viral infection that weakens the bodies immune system, progressively destroying that bodies ability to fight pathogens and certain cancers


Combination of antiretroviral drugs that may be prescribed when the HIV viral load reaches certain levels


Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus

Protease Inhibitor

Class of medications used to treat or prevent such viral infections as HIV and hepatitis C. These medications prevent viral replication by inhibiting the activity of protease

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