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Chapter 17!

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How political machines emerged in U.S. cities.
Providing public services, such as expanding sewer and water systems and paving streets.
Why immigrants were important to political machines.
The machines maintained their political power with the support of immigrant voters.
How corruption and illegal activities developed in many political machines.
Election fraud or graft. Many wanted more political power.
what events led to the collapse of public support for the tweed ring?
Thomas Nast's cartoons revealed, Tweeds corruption even to the people who couldn't read.
Political machines
Well organized political parties dominating city governments in the U.S.
Political bosses
People who managed political machines
Graft
The acquisition of money or political power through illegal or dishonest methods.
Kickbacks
payments of part of the earning from a job or contract.
Alexander Shepherd
A political boss of Washington. Financed expanded sewer and water systems, paved streets, and provided other public services.
James Pendergast
Ran a political machine in Kansas City, Missouri. he was well liked.
George Washington Plunkitt
political boss of Tammany hall explained "Honest graft.
William Marcy Tweed
1860's political boss of Tammany Hall collapsed when political opinion turned against him.
Thomas Nast
Political cartoon artist. Published some 50 cartoons in Harper's weekly. That criticized Twen and Tammany Hall.
What scandals plagued the Grant administration?
Financier Jay Gould and James Fisk(the presidents brother-in-law) attempted to corner the gold market.
Why Americans wanted political reform and how this desire affected the Republican party.
Motivated by a distrust of political leaders and began to push for reforms. This caused the republican party to split in two groups; the Stalwarts and the half-breads.
Why president Arthur's positions on civil service reform changed and how this affected his political party.
THe Pendleton Civil Service Act passed. Administered competitive exams to those who wanted government jobs this caused voters to vote for James Blane
How president Harrison dealt with president Cleveland's reforms.
Harrison weakened the reform efforts of president Cleveland. This made the republicans run the office and presidency.
Gilded age
Name applied by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley warner to late 1800 American Describe the corruption and greed that lurked below the surface of society.
Stalwarts
Late 1800, Republicans who opposed reform.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883, established The Civil Service Commission to administer competitive exams to those who want government jobs.
Mugwumps
"Big chiefs" Republican reformers who supported democrat Cleveland in the election in 1884.
James A. Garfield
Republican party presidential candidate. Was shot July 2, 1881
Chester A. Arthur
Placed on the ballet as vice president, Secured passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Act.
Grover Cleveland
President in 1884, "He is a honest man" was written in the New York World. He won the election.
Benjamin Harrison
Grandson of the 9th president. Cleveland won popular vote, but Harrison won electoral vote in 1888
What factors led to the economic hardships for farmers?
More farmers were farming and doing the same things, and machines, transportation of farm goods continued to go up in cost. They had to barrow money and couldn't pay off debt.
What the farmers' movements hoped to achieve, and what weakened their efforts?
Lowering costs in transporting goods. Having 3 organizations weakened their efforts because they didn't all combine.
Why farmers supported money backed by silver.
Because of the gold standard, made less money in circulation and because farmers were already having a hard time finically silver was plentiful.
What issues did the populist party support?
Graduated income tax, bank regulation, government ownership of railroad and telegraph companies and the free coinage of silver.
How did silver affect the economy and the 1896 presidential election?
Made the economy worse. People wanted gold rather than their free silver now that they are unemployed.
National Grange
Founded by Oliver Hudson Kelly in 1867 to tackle the economic and political issues with farmers.
Cooperatives
Groups that pool members' resources to sell products directly to markets and to buy goods at regular price.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 prohibited railroads from giving secret rebates, to large shippers or charging more for short halls vs. long ones over the same lane.
Graduated Income Tax
Taxed higher incomes at higher rates.
Gold Standard
Each dollar was equal to and redeemable for a set amount of gold.
Bland-allison Act
Federal law that required the government to buy and mint silver each month.
Sherman-Silver purchase Act
Required the U.S. government to purchase nearly twice as much silver as before, but also added substantially to the amount of money already in circulation
Populist Party
Coalition of alliance members, farmers, labor leaders and reformers.
Mary Elizabeth Lease
Spred the cause of the alliance movement, speaking out against monopolies.
James B. Weaver
Was nominated to run in 1892, and did not win presidential election.
William McKinley
Ohio governor, presidential candidate adopted platform upholding the gold standard.
William Jennings Bryan
Leading American politician from the 1890s until his death. He was a dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as its candidate for President of the United States.
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