Cells and Cell Transport Vocabulary
Terms in this set (56)
the semipermeable membrane surrounding cytoplasm of cell
the theory that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells
the contents of a eukaryotic cell between plasma membrane and nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles; can also refer to interior of prokaryotic cell.
type of cell that has membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria and archae are composed of these cells.
an atom's central core, containing proteins and neutrons; organelle of eukaryotic cell that contains genetic material in form of chromosomes, made of chromatin
A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell
type of cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles; found only in domains of bacteria and archae
cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. In eukaryotic cells, these are constructed in the nucleolus
In a plant cell, a large membranous sac with diverse roles in growth and the storage of chemicals and wastes
Cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells occurring in pairs and involved in development of spindle fibers in cell division.
gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the main gene carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell; consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion or moving fluid past the cell, form from a core of nine outer doublet micro tubules and 2 single microtublues covered by the cell's plasma membrane
network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and micro-tubules
an extensive membranous network in a eukaryotic cell, continuous with outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome studded and ribosome free regions
long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. Differ in structure in function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Have 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules covered by cell's plasma membrane
organelle in eukayrotic cells consisting of stacks of membranous sacs that modify, store, and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
optical instrument with lenses that refract visible light to magnify images and project them into a viewers eye or onto photographic film
digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest engulfed food or damaged organelles.
magnifying power of an instrument
thickest of 3 main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a hollow tube made of globular proteins called tublins; found in cilia and flagella.
organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs. Enclosed by two membranes; it is where most of the cell's ATP is made.
A double membrane that encloses the nucleus, perforated with pores that regulate traffic with cytoplasm.
Organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen atoms from various substrates to oxygen producing and the degrading hydrogen peroxide
the shortest distance between two points on a specimen that can still be distinguished by the observer
Scanning Electron Miscroscope
Microscope that uses electron beam to study surface details of cell of specimen
Transmission Electron Miscroscope
Microscope that uses electron beam to study internal structure of thinly sectioned specimens
Sac made of membrane in cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
Cell Surface Marker
surface protein, glycoprotein, or group of proteins that distinguish a cell of subset of cells from another defined subset of cells.
Cell Surface Protein
Proteins that are embedded in or span the layer of cell membranes of more complex organism, integral to way in which cell interacts to environment.
Trans-membrane protein complex which allows water and inorganic ions to passively diffuse across membrane bilayer
In animals - regulatory chemical that ravels in blood from its production site, usually as endocrine gland, to other sites, where target cells respond to signal
In plants - chemical produced in one part of plant and travels to another part of plant, where it acts on target cells to change their functioning.
Thin polar membrane made of 2 layers of lipid molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form continuous barrier around all cells.
Lipid made up of glycerol joined to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving molecule 2 nonpolar hydrophobic tails and a polar hydrophilic head. Form bilayers that function as membranes.
Intracellular protein having a high specific affinity for binding agents known to stimulate cellular activity, such as steroid hormone.
Movement of substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring an input of energy.
Energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy of hydrogen ions gradients across membrane to drive cellular work, such as the phosphorylation of top.
Involves bonding of proteins called G protein to receptors on the membranes of these cells, which allow selective movement of certain ions into and out of the cell membrane, which keeps ion gradients across cell membrane in the correct changes to allow for impulse movement down the membrane
Random movement of particles that results in net movement of a substance down its concentration gradient from a region where it is more concentrated to less concentrated.
Cellular uptake of molecules or particles via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane
a state in which opposing forces are balanced
Movement of materials out a cell by fusion of vesicles with plasma membrane
Passage of substance through a specific transport protein across biological membrane down its concentration gradient.
Solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause cell to lose water
Solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause cell to take up water.
solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause no net movement of water into or out of cell
Diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Pressure that would have to be applied to a pure solvent to prevent it form passing into given solution by osmosis
Diffusion of substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy
Cellular eating; a type of endocytosis in which one cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles in cytoplasm.
Ingestion of liquid into a cell by budding of small vesicles from cell membrane
Integral membrane protein that is capable of moving protons across a biological membrane
Property of biological membranes that allow some substances to cross more easily than others and blocks passage of other substances altogether
Sodium Potassium Pump
Mechanism responsible for moving potassium ions and sodium ions across plasma membrane
Substance that is dissolved into a solution
Liquid that is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances
Dissolving agent of a solution
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