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Principles of Learning EXAM #1
Terms in this set (49)
Nativist vs. Empiricist
Nativist: we're born in set ways (Decarté, Hobbes, & Plato)
Empiricist: we're born with a blank slate and experiences add to us (Locke and Aristotle)
Why do we use animals to study human learning?
Because it provides for more precise control and gives good evolutionary and biologically based information
Define learning in terms of behavioral change.
Learning is adaptation to the environment. An enduring change in the mechanisms of behavior involving specific stimuli and/or responses that results from prior experience with similar stimuli and responses.
Important factors for learning are continuity, frequency, intensity, and similarity
How is learning different from other forms of behavioral change like development?
-it can be intentional
-it can be due to exposure and association
-it involves neuronal plasticity and LTP/LTD formation
Why should learning be studied with experimental methods rather than others?
It provides manipulation and control so it is more accurate in showing cause and effect
What are the the main points of ethical treatment of animals in research?
We should be concerned about their welfare and keep discomfort at a minimum. We should also keep the # of animals used at a minimum and use alternative experiments if possible.
Why does learning have to be studied only with experimental methods?
Because behavior has to be observed with and without the presumed cause. The presence or absence of the independent variable will show learning or not
The view of behavior according to which actions can be separated into two categories: voluntary behavior controlled by the mind, and involuntary behavior controlled by reflex mechanisms.
Learning about a specific event or fact, usually acces- sible to consciousness.
Behavior that occurs early in a natural behavior sequence and serves to bring the organism in contact with a releasing stimulus.
Behavior that serves to bring a natural sequence of behavior to consummation or completion, responses are usually species-typical modal action patterns.
A response pattern exhibited by most, if not all, members of a species in much the same way
model action pattern (MAP)
A compensatory mechanism that occurs in response to the primary process elicited by biologically significant events
A specific feature of an object or animal that elicits a modal action pattern in another organism.
What part of the neuron receives info from the environment/other neurons?
What part of the neuron gets info from dendrites and contains the nucleus?
What part of the neuron is responsible for conducting the AP?
What part of the neuron insulates the axon to keep the AP contained and speedy?
What parts of the neuron are the spaces between the myelin where the AP is recharged?
nodes of Ranvier
What part of the neuron reads the AP and then releases stored neurotransmitters when necessary?
What part of the neuron is the open space where the chemicals are released?
What is the part of the neuron in between the cell body and the axon where AP is generated?
What is elicited behavior? How can it be involved in complex behavior?
simple reflex behavior that works with as few as 3 neurons
-can vary with experience
-can lead to complex emotional behavior
Describe habituation, sensory adaptation, fatigue, and sensitization.
habituation- A progressive decrease in in the strength of an elicited behavior due to repeated presentations of the same stimuli
sensory adaptation- A temporary decrease in the sensitivity of sense organs caused by too much stimulation.
fatigue- A temporary decrease in behavior caused by too much use of the muscles involved in it
sensitization- increase in response because of exposure (opposite of habituation)
How are habituation and sensitization involved in emotional regulation and drug addiction?
When a person displays habituation towards a drug by using it frequently you see them with an increase in DRUG TOLERANCE. They are no longer sensitized to feel the primary effects as strongly, but the opponent after-reaction is stronger. This makes the reaction BIPHASIC.
Other types of emotional stimuli, like love and attachment, grow in habituation when a married couple has been together a long time. They are no longer sensitized to each other so they interact comfortably without the honeymoon type of excitement. However, the opponent after-effect proves to be strong seeing that there is great grief if one of them dies or gets a disease.
Be able to trace a reflex arc
Describe an action potential (AP)
a temporary electrical disturbance in the resting potential where the normally inner - charge and the normally outer + charge quickly flip and flip back and it travels down an axon
Describe synaptic transmission.
Chemical transmission of messages from one neuron to another via a synapse
-vesicles release neurotransmitters/chemicals which travel across the synapse and bind to the postsynaptic receptors
Which neurotransmitters are related to learning and how?
3.Acetylcholine- helps with motor learning, attention, & memory
4.Dopamine- reward seeking behavior
5.Norepinephrine- increases arousal, helping with memory
How do LTP (long term potentiation) and experience affect learning?
LTP and experience bind your learning to your long term memory
Define the US, UR, NS, CS, and CR.
US (unconditioned stimulus)- something happens (rewarding or bad) but nothing has been associated
UR (unconditioned response)- reaction to the stimulus but nothing has been associated
NS (neutral stimulus)- a new thing that happens that doesn't normally cause the response (Pavlov's bell)
CS (conditioned stimulus)- results from the NS when the association has happened
CR (conditioned response)- a response learned by associating the US and CS (reflexive/natural)
linking process between the US and CS
-works best when there is prediction (CS comes before the US and they overlap in time)
to stop associating the US and CS after the association has been established (this decreases the CR)
-can happen when the CS is presented without the US
stopping exposure to the CS and US and then presenting the CS alone, causing the CR to come back
having a CR to another, similar stimulus
having a CR to only one specific stimulus
when a link is formed with a specific CS and it takes dominance over any other stimuli
taking the CS and linking it with another neutral stimulus in order to turn the NS into a CS(2) producing the same CR
higher order conditioning
Describe a procedure used to produce discrimination.
Seeing just any car doesn't invoke fear because you are able to discriminate between random cars and police cars. Only police cars make you fearful.
What is it tested on?
-used in timid, prey animals
-associations are strong and fast because its emotional
-it involves many parts of the brain
What is it tested on?
What part of the brain is it linked to?
What is the US usually paired with?
Where does the data come from?
-used on animals like rats and humans
-linked to the cerebellum
-usually paired with a tone
-data comes from electrical activity of the blinking muscles
What is it tested on?
How does it work and what is the end result?
-previously only pigeons now all animals
- a CS (like light) is paired with the US (food/reward) so that the end result is the pigeon having the CR to the CS alone
What is it tested on?
How does it work?
-tested on rats/mice
-you pair a new/novel taste (US) with the feeling of being sick to get the subject to display avoidance in the future
-it works similarly with smells
What is inhibitory conditioning like? How is it measured?
you learn to predict the absence of the CS and the benefit is that it lowers stress, ways to measure:
1. Summation test (CS+ + CS-)
-extinction fails this
2. Retardation of Acquisition Test (CS- +US = CS+)
-latent inhibition fails this
3. Bi Directional Response System (response can go up or down from the baseline like with BP or HR)
Why is novelty important?
because pre-exposure can delay learning related associations
- to the CS: latent inhibition
- to the US in the absence of the CS (US preexposure effect)
Why is intensity important?
it's important that the US and CS be intense because it yields stronger CR
Why is salience important?
because attention must be grabbed by the US and CS to yield stronger CR
Why is belongingness important?
because the more relevant the CS is to the US, the stronger CR. its species specific
Why is timing important?
optimal delay of onset depends on the paradigm but its most effective when the CS preceeds the US and there is overlap in time
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