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50 terms

Psy ch. 5

STUDY
PLAY
quantity
how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify (number of items or to some other way of denominating the value of a collection or group of items.)
quality
an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone;
Sensorimotor
The first stage of Piaget's theory lasts from birth to approximately age two and is centered on the infant trying to make sense of the world. ( looking, sucking, grasping, and listening)
Preoperational
occurs between ages two and six. Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period. (do not yet understand concrete logic)
Concrete Operations
begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.
Formal Operations
begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.
Schemas
An organized pattern of sensorimotor functioning
ASSIMILATION
is when people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking.
ACCOMMODATION
is a change in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.
CIRCULAR REACTION
is an activity that permits the construction of cognitive schemes through repetition of a chance motor event.
secondary circular reactions
are repeated actions meant to bring about a desirable consequence on the outside world.
GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR
where several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem. (coordinate moving an uninteresting object out of the way to get a more desirable one)
OBJECT PERMANENCE,
the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen.
tertiary circular reactions
involve the deliberate variation of actions to bring desirable consequences
MENTAL REPRESENTATION
an internal image of a past event or object
DEFERRED IMITATION
in which a person who is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act.
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
The initial, major stage of cognitive development in Piaget's theory!
Substage 1: Simple Reflexes
first month of life. various reflexes determine the infant's interaction with world.
Substage 2: first habits and primary circular reactions
From 1-4 months of age coordination of actions (grasping and sucking an object)
Substage 3: secondary circular reactions
4-8 months of age. begins to act on world (e.g., rattles rattle)
Substage 4: coordination of secondary circular reactions
8-12 months of age. (GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR and OBJECT PERMANENCE)
Substage 5: tertiary circular reactions
12-18 months of age
Substage 6: beginning of thought
18-24 months of age. Can image outcomes (ball rolling behind coach)
INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACHES to Cognitive Development
The model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information
Encoding
is the process by which information is initially recorded in a form usable to memory.
Storage
refers to the maintenance of material saved in memory.
Retrieval
is the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used.
automatic
Processes that require little attention are
controlled
Processes that require large amounts of attention are
MEMORY
is the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved.
INFANTILE AMNESIA
the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to three years of age.
DEVELOPMENTAL QUOTIENT
an overall development score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, advaptive behavior, and personal - social.
BAYLEY SCALES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT
measure the mental and motor development and test the behavior of infants from 2 to 42 months of age.
VISUAL-RECOGNITION MEMORY
the memory of and recognition of a stimulus that has been previously seen, also relate to intelligence
INFORMATION-PROCESSING
measures correlate moderately well with later measures of intelligence.
LANGUAGE
is the systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, and provides the basis for communication.
Phonology
refers to the basic sounds of language, called phonemes, that can be combined to produce words and sentences
Morphemes
are the smallest language unit that has meaning
Semantics
are the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences.
PRELINGUISTIC COMMUNICATION
Communication through sounds, facial expressions, gestures, imitations, and other non-linguistic means.
BABBLING
is when infants make speech-like but meaningless sounds at about 2-3 months continuing to about 1 year. (universal phenomenon)
HOLOPHRASES
First words are generally spoken between 10-14 months. one-word utterances that depend on the particular context in which they are used to determine
TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH
where words not critical to the message are left out.
UNDEREXTENSION
using words too restrictively, is common.
OVEREXTENSION
using words too broadly, is also common.
UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR.
Chomsky argues that all the world's languages share a similar underlying structure called
LANGUAGE-ACQUISITION DEVICE (LAD),
a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit the understanding of language.
INFANT-DIRECTED SPEECH,
a type of speech directed towards infants, characterized by short, simple sentences.
Referential Style
a style of language use in which language is used primarily to label objects(U.S.)
Expressive Style
a style of language use in which language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others(Japanese)