83 terms

AP US History Period 6 (1865-1898)

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People's (Populist) Party
An agrarian-populist political party in the United States
For a few years, 1892-96, it played a major role as a left-wing force in American politic
Drew support from angry farmers in the West and South and operated on the left-wing of American politic
Highly critical of capitalism, especially banks and railroads
Allied itself with the labor movement.
assimilation
the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group
social services
a range of public services provided by governmental or private organizations.
Aimed at creating effective organizations, building stronger communities, and promoting equality and opportunity. Include benefits of education, health care, job training and subsidized housing
The Gilded Age
Means something is gold covered
The late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.
Term derived from writer Mark Twain's 1873 The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding of economic progress.
Social Darwinism
Term coined in the late 19th century to describe the idea that humans, like animals and plants, compete in a struggle for existence in which natural selection results in "survival of the fittest." Provided a justification for the enormous wealth and power wielded by industrialists in the latter half of the 19th century.
Gospel of Wealth
An essay written by Andrew Carnegie in June of 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
Promoted the idea of philanthropy
Jane Addams
A pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace.
She created the first Hull House.
Co-winner of 1931 Nobel Peace Prize.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 - Legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal."
racial segregation
the separation of humans into ethnic or racial groups in daily life.
Generally applies to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus, or in the rental or purchase of a home.
free enterprise
an economic system that permits unrestricted entrepreneurial business activity
associated with laissez-faire capitalism
trust
A set of companies managed by a small group known as trustees, who can prevent companies in the trust from competing with each other.
socialist
one who believes in the ownership and control of the major means of production by the whole community rather than by individuals or corporations
radical
one who believes in fundamental change in a political, economic, or social system
lockout
the refusal by an employer to allow employees to work unless they agree to his or her terms
cooperative
an organization for producing, marketing, or consuming goods in which the members share the benefits
anarchist
one who believes that formal, coercive government is wrong in principle
tenement
a multi-dwelling building, often poor or overcrowded
sweatshop
a factory where employees are forced to work long hours under difficult conditions for meager wages
pauper
a poor person, often one who lives on tax-supported charity
tycoon
a wealthy businessperson, especially one who openly displays power and position
filibuster
to utilize the technique of obstructing legislation by tactics such as making long speeches and introducing irrelevant amendments
landslide
an overwhelming majority of votes for one side in an election
reserve
in finance, the portion of money held back from circulation by a bank or treasury, which provides backing for its notes or loans
bimetallism
the legalized concurrent use of two precious metals as currency at a fixed ratio of value
in US History associated with the Free Silver movement
Wabash v. Illinois (1886)
Declared state-passed Granger laws that regulated interstate commerce unconstitutional.
U. S. v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895)
Due to a narrow interpretation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the Court undermined the authority of the federal government to act against monopolies.
Frontier Thesis
stereotypical thesis that west represented individualism, democracy, economic freedom, and starting over
Turner's idea
Land Grants
land given by government to universities and railroad companies
Dawes Act
1887
land given to individual Indians to discourage tribal mindset
encouraged Indians to farm for a living instead of communally owning land
Bureau of Indian Affairs
designed to assimilate Native Americans (children particularly) into American culture
Open Range
the idea that cattle can be grazed on large tracts of public and/or private property
invention of barbed wire ended this idea and drove many small cattle ranches out of business and off their small plots of land
Vertical Integration
Strategy to maximize profits by attempting to own every step of the manufacturing process (ex. Carnegie Steel)
Horizontal Integration
Strategy to maximize profits by attempting to purchase competing companies in the same industry; monopoly-building (ex. Rockefeller's Standard Oil)
Knights of Labor
American labor organization in the 1880s led by Terence V. Powderly.
Organized a wide range of workers, including skilled and unskilled, and had broad reform goals.
Haymarket Riot
1886
Labor dispute in Chicago that ended with a bomb being thrown at police resulting in many deaths.
Led to an unfavorable public opinion of organized labor especially the Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
An organization of various trade unions that fought for specific reforms
Wanted better wages, fewer hours, better working conditions
Founded by Samuel Gompers
Homestead Steel Strikes
Violent labor conflict in Carnegie's mills
Henry Frick (manager) announced pay cut
Strike had to be put down by state militia
Urbanization
movement of people from rural communities and settlements to big cities
"New Immigrants"
immigrants from southern and eastern Europe such as Poland, Italy, etc. that arrived in the US during & after the 1880s
Chinese Exclusion Act
First law limiting immigration based on race; effectively stopped immigration from China through the end of WWII.
Political Machine
Unofficial political organization that works to win elections in order to exercise power
Sometimes referred to as a shadow government
Rose to power in the late 1800s because of ill-equipped local governments that failed to meet the needs of growing urban populations
Tammany Hall
Political machine of New York City that was well-known for its corruption
Lead by William Boss Tweed
Pendelton Civil Service Act, 1883
Standardized an exam for federal employees so that people were awarded jobs on merit rather than political affiliations
Made it illegal to remove federal employees without just cause.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Outlawed monopolistic business practices
not effective initially without a strong progressive federal government that would enforce it.
Grange Movement and Farmers Alliance
Grassroots movements that attempted to address the plight of farmers in the late 1800s; attempted to regulate railroads and enlarge opportunity for credit
evolved into Populist movement.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic presidential hopeful that was a member of the Populist Party
free silver advocate
"Do not crucify mankind on a cross of gold".
Seward's Folly or Seward's Ice Box
Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.
At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box" but it turned out to be the biggest bargain since the Louisiana purchase.
Susan B. Anthony
Social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association.
Laissez-Faire Economics
This was an economic philosophy begun by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, that stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government. This economic thought dominated most of the time period of the Industrial Revolution.
New South
After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. In reality, this growth was fairly slow.
Americanization
Process of assimilating immigrants into American culture by teaching English, American history, and citizenship.
middle class
a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
Interstate Commerce Act
1887
Created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to regulate railroads to be fairer to farmers
First legislation to regulate corporations
Ineffective because government failed to enforce it.
Andrew Carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892.
By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Great philanthropist
Transcontinental Railroad
Railroad that would cross the continent and connect the East to the West
Opened new markets and helped spur the Industrial Revolution
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, UT
Social Gospel
Late 19th-century movement Protestant movement preaching that all true Christians should be concerned with the plight of immigrants and other poor residents of American cities and should financially support efforts to improve lives of these poor urban dwellers. Settlement houses were often financed by funds raised by ministers of this movement.
Standard Oil
John D. Rockefeller's company that gained a monopoly over the world petroleum market with the practice of trusts and swift elimination of competition.
By 1890, owned 90% of the US oil market
Carnegie Steel
A steel producing company created by Andrew Carnegie to manage business at his steel mills in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area in the late 19th century
Significance: had a monopoly in the steel industry. vertical integrations.
John D. Rockefeller
Wealthy owner of Standard Oil Company. Considered to be a robber baron who used ruthless tactics to eliminate other businesses. Built trusts and used money to influence government.
Industrial Revolution
Period characterized by the rapid social and economic changes in manufacturing and agriculture that occurred in England during the late 18th century and rapidly diffused to other parts of the developed world. In the US, this occurred during the period roughly 1825-1925.
Alaska
The last frontier of the North American continent. It was purchased from Russia in 1867 and was considered to be worthless land; however, in time, this was proven false
Central Pacific Railroad
Started in CA & pushed eastward
Eventually connected with the Union Pacific RR in Promontory Point, UT
Hired Chinese laborers to complete the work
Union Pacific Railroad
RR that started in Omaha, NE
Connected with Central Pacific RR in Promontory Point, UT
Hired inexpensive Irish laborers
Wyoming & women's suffrage
WY was the 1st state to provide women the right to vote in 1870
Sometimes referred to as the "Land of Freedom"
"old immigrants"
Immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s
Mainly from England and Northern Europe
Yellowstone National Park
Established in 1872 by US Congress
1st national park
Panic of 1873
Financial panic in which banks closed and the stock market crashed
US Steel
Largest steel company of the US
Created by JP Morgan by merging with Carnegie Steel
Largest corporation in existence at the time
Bessemer Process
Way to manufacture steel quickly & cheaply
Battle of Little Bighorn
1876- Indian leaders Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse defeated Gen. Custer & his troops
Nez Perce War
Conflict between the Nez Perce & the US gov't
Chief Joseph finally agrees to surrender & relocate to reservation
Great Railway Strike of 1877
RR workers initiated a strike in 1877 when they were told there would be a pay cut
A Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson
Exposed mistreatment of Native Americans by US gov't & settlers
James Garfield
Became president in 1880
Republican
Assassinated after only 4 months
Promoted civil service reform, but died before it could be enacted
JP Morgan
Banker that controlled 2/3 of RRs and eventually merged with Carnegie's steel company
Formed US Steel
Considered a robber baron
Captains of Industry
Owners & mangers of large industrial enterprises who wielded great political & economic power
More positive term in contrast to "robber barons"
Robber Barons
Refers to industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying employees low wages
Drove competition out of business by selling goods much cheaper
Hull House
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy family
Provided social & education opportunities for working class
Worked to improve conditions caused by poverty
Est. by Jane Addams in Chicago
Jacob Riis
Danish immigrant
Report who pointed out terrible conditions of tenement houses
Author of How the Other Half Lives (1890)
Wounded Knee
1890
Last Native American battle
300 Native killed by US military
Ellis Island
Immigration processing center in NY Harbor
Pullman Strike
Pullman RR car announced pay cut
American Railway Union boycotts the use of the Pullman cars
US mail failed to be delivered
US gov't sent injunction to end boycott
SCOTUS ruled injunction was constitutional
Homestead Act
Gave settlers 160 acres of land if they lived on the land for 6 months and cultivated crops
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