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APUSH The American Pageant Chapter 24 The Industrial Age, 1865-1900
Terms in this set (51)
Union Pacific Railroad
A railroad that started in Omaha, and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
Joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. Involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
Central Pacific Railroad
A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
The railroad line that spanned the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Northern Pacific Railroad
This railroad ran from Lake Superior to Puget Sound
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad
Railroads that connected the Southwest deserts to California
Southern Pacific Railroad
Railroad into Southern California that greatly sparked interest in that area, despite the former idea that Southern California was unfarmable.
Great Northern Railroad
The Great Northern's route was the northernmost transcontinental railroad route in the United States and was north of the Northern Pacific Railway route. The Great Northern was a privately funded transcontinental railroad
James J. Hill
Driving force of the Gr. Northern Railway , Became a Shipping Agent For Winnipeg Merchants Nicknamed the "Empire Builder"
New York Central
old eastern railway welded to new westward rails, owned by Cornelius Vanderbilt
Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt
Built the New York Central Railroad System
Owners of the transcontinental railroads introduced America's four time zones (eastern, central, mountain, and Pacific) in 1883 to help standardize their operations & reduce accidents.
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
Originally referring to cattle, term for the practice of railroad promoters exaggerationg the profitability of stocks in excess of its actual value
A 'pool' is an informal agreement between a group of people or leaders of a company to keep their prices high and to keep competition low. The Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 made railroads publicly publish their prices and it outlawed the pool.
1886 Supreme Court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
The 1887 law that expanded federal power over business by prohibiting pooling and discriminatory rates by railroads and establishing the first federal regulatory agency.
Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
J. P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
Standard Oil Trust
Rockefeller's company, in 1881, owned 90 percent of the oil refinery business, with a board of trustees at the head
"Interlocking directorates "
the consolidation of rival enterprises, to ensure harmony officers of a banking syndicate were placed on boards of these rivals
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
United States Steel Corp.
J. P. Morgan & Elbert H. Gary founded this corporation in 1901. Once the largest steel producer and largest corporation in the world. 1st Billion Dollar Corporation. Maintained the labor policies of Andrew Carnegie, which called for low wages and opposition to unionization.
Gustavus Swift/Philip Armour
Founders of the American meat-packing industry. Targeted in Upton Sinclair's muckraker novel The Jungle due to the absence of federal inspections resulting in tainted meat and eventually the passing of the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
Gospel of Wealth
Book by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists and help the masses. Softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States; Used initially by the government to limit the power of labor unions and break up strikes
James Buchanan Duke
Formed the American Tabacco Company, controlled 90% of the cigarette market; Founder of Duke University in NC
Athletic and independent, the idealized American girl of the 1890s as pictured by C. D. Gibson
Strikebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
a management action resisting employee's demands
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
A town built and owned by a single company; its residnets depend on the company not only for jobs but for stores, schools, and housing as well
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
Knights of Labor
One of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
Led the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child labor
Haymarket Square episode
A dynamite bomb threw when Chicago police broke forth to a protest of workers, 1886 - Downfall of the Knights; 8 anarchist bombed while protest occurs, 1 suicide, 4 sentanced to death 3 long terms, let go by Altgeld
American Federation of Labor
Federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955 -- The AFL of the AFL- CIO. 1 of the most successful & enduring labor unions in US History
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
"Most Dangerous Person in America" Dressmaker in Chicago until the Great Fire destroyed her business. Devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburgh, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners (WV & CO) and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform. "Pray for the dead and fight like hell for the living!"
"Captains of Industry"
company owners such as Carnegie and Rockefeller who some followers thought had a positive impact on the country in terms of businesses
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.