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AP Human Geography Unit 1: Geography- Its Nature and Perspectives
Terms in this set (87)
Who was Ptolemy?
created early, but inaccurate maps
Who was Eratosthenes?
1st to use word "geography." used sun to estimate circumference of earth; believed in a geocentric world so his calculations were wrong
Who was Muhammed al Idrisi?
worked for king of Sicily to create a map called Tabula Rogeriana. More of a financial backer
Who was Ibn-Battuta?
collaborated with and combined knowledge from various cultures to give a singular world view. traveled
What is space?
how close or separated things are; number in an area
Who was John Harrison?
he created a clock that could be used at sea to determine longitude
Who was George Perkins Marsh?
began study of impact humans have on their surroundings. wrote Man & Nature
Who was Carl Sauer?
continued study of people's environmental impact. believed environment doesn't determine culture
Why have we experienced a huge jump forward in terms of understanding Earth in the past 50 years?
What is remote sensing?
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite.
What does GIS stand for and what does it do?
Geographic Information Systems. Collects and displays geographic info
What are the three essential functions of GIS?
Data collection management, analysis, and display
What does GPS stand for and what is it used for?
Global Positioning System. uses satellites to determine exact position. 4 out of 24 satellites are in contact with you at all times
What can be distorted on a map depending on the type?
shape, distance, size, and direction
What is scale on a map?
ratio between 2 places on a map and the actual distance on Earth's surface
What is the difference between a small scale and large scale?
Small scale: small fractions; big map; less detail
Large scale: large fractions; small map; more detail
What is a verbal scale?
Tells you how many inches on the map are equal to a number of miles on the ground surface. WRITTEN on bottom of map
What is a functional scale?
a fraction. Ex) 1:2
What is a graphic scale?
gives a small measurement and compares it to a larger one
What is a Mercator map?
rectangle, shape and direction not distorted. HUGE size distortion. further away from center = larger size. used for direction and distance
What is a Goode Homolosine map?
weird polygon shape, breaks up oceans, little distortion except for shape
What is a Robinson map?
oval with a flat to and bottom. Large size distortion
What is a Gall-Peters map?
rectangular, little distortion except for shape (continents are elongated). good for distance
What are cartograms?
when the land area of a map is altered to represent another characteristic
What are choropleths?
when a characteristic is shown on a map by color
What are meridians or lines of longitude?
arcs between north and south poles
What is the main line of longitude?
What are parallels or lines of latitude?
lines that run around earth and intersect meridians at right angles
What is the main line of latitude?
What is the International Dateline?
-The international dateline separates days
-It runs at 180 degrees longitude through the Pacific Ocean
-If you cross it moving westward, you add a day
-If you cross it moving eastward, you subtract a day
How many time zones are there in the world and about how wide are they?
24. 15 degrees
What is a place?
refers to a specific point; described by location
What does a place name symbolize?
symbolizes people who have/ currently live there
What is a site?
physical features of a place
What is the situation of a place?
relationship and interaction; direction; orientation Ex) Richmond Hill is west of the Atlantic Ocean
What is sense of place?
feelings evoked when a place is named; connections we have; both physical and cultural ideas
What is a descriptive toponym and give an example?
describes a location; specific. Ex) Rocky Mtns
What is an associative toponym and give an example?
describes a location; general Ex) Mill Valley, CA
What is an incidental toponym and give an example?
what happened there Ex) Battle Creek, MI
What is a possessive toponym and give an example?
named for someone famous; denoted location or boundary Ex) Johnston City, TX
What is a commemorative toponym and give an example?
honors someone famous (just name) Ex) San Francisco, CA
What is a commendatory toponym and give an example?
praises location Ex) Paradise Valley, AZ
What is a manufactured toponym and give an example?
made up words Ex) Truth or Consequence, NM
What is a mistaken toponym and give an example?
historic error Ex) Lasker, NC
What is a shifted toponym and give an example?
named for another location Ex) New York
What is a region?
refers to an area with common cultural or physical characteristics
What is a formal or uniform idea of a region?
people share a common culture
What is a functional or nodal idea of a region?
an area organized around a central point
What is a perceptual or vernacular idea of a region?
based on our idea of a place
What is scale?
relationship between size of studied place and earth
What is globalization?
growing interconnectivity; "shrinking" of world
What are transnational corporations and how do they impact globalization?
companies that operate, sell goods, and are headquartered in multiple countries. The countries become more connected and similar.
What is space?
how close or separates things are; number in an area
What is distribution and how does it impact culture?
the arrangement of a feature. Affects the placement of businesses
What are connections?
relationship of people across space and time
What is hearth?
where info and ideas originate and spread from
What is diffusion and what are the two types?
spreading of info and ideas. expansion and relocation
What is relocation?
people take their culture with them
What is expansion and what are the three types?
diffusion from one place to another
- hierarchical: important
- contagious: rapid and widespread
- stimulus: idea adopted by someone else
What is spatial interaction?
the idea that humans and ideas are able to move more and more rapidly
What is distance decay?
the further away to things are from each other, the less likely they are to interact
What is the space-time compression?
idea that distance decay is decreasing
What is renewable energy?
produced more rapidly by nature than humans can consume it
What is nonrenewable energy?
produced more slowly by nature than humans can consume it
What is destruction?
to completely ruin. We are destroying oil reserves through drilling.
What is depletion?
to decrease. We are depleting the forests through deforestation.
What does sustainable mean?
to ensure for future use
What does unsustainable mean?
will eventually be gone
What does conservation mean?
to use resources for human needs; resources are used, but responsibly
What does preservation mean?
to maintain resources for the future; resources aren't used
What are the three pillars of sustainability and what do they mean?
- Environment: placing nature above human values
- Economy: how much humans are willing to pay
- Society: balancing basic human needs with our environment
What is the atmosphere?
layers of gas
What is the hydrosphere?
all of earth's water
What is the lithosphere?
all of Earth's rock
What is the biosphere?
all living things
What is toponymy?
scientific study of place names, along with their origins and meanings; based on etymological, historical, and geographical info
What is a toponym?
name of a place
What is the idea of environmental determinism?
Idea that environment determines culture
What is the idea of environmental possibilism?
Idea that environment and culture are interrelated, but environment can be modified w/ tech to suit needs of population
What are the two parts of place names in any culture?
Generic (classifying) and specific (modifying or particular)
What is density?
how many; high or low
What is concentration?
where; clustered or dispersed
What is pattern?
how are they arranged; correlations
What are memorial toponyms?
toponyms chosen to memorialize important figures
What is the commodification of toponyms?
the practice of buying, trading, and selling of place toponyms to promote pop culture
What is sequent occupance?
notion that successive societies leave their cultural impacts on a place, each contributing to a cumulative cultural landscape
How are distance decay and the space-time compression related?
As interconnectivity increases, the distance decay decreases. Social media, phones, etc. are impacting the interconnectivity
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