Professional Education Test Study Set
Terms in this set (113)
Word formed from the first initials of a title or phrase.
Bloom's Taxonomy (1)
A classification of learning objectives proposed in 1956. It is used to classify educational goals. Originally it included the following levels: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. Revised, it describes levels as Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating. Three domains for classifying educational objectives: Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor.
brain hemisphere (1)
The two halves of the brain. The left controls the right side of the body and functions primarily as the more academic and logical side of the brain. The right controls the left side of the body and functions primarily as the artistic and creative side of the brain.
Bruner, Jerome (1)
A psychologist who is known for his work in cognitive psychology and the cognitive learning theory.
choral reading (1)
Students read together, aloud, and in unison with the teacher to practice fluency.
classroom management (1)
Planning and implementing methods to ensure that the learning environment of the classroom provides an effective venue for learning.
Teachers' strategies that create and maintain an orderly classroom environment.
convergent questions (1)
A type of question that requires a student to "come together" on one answer. An example of a this type of question is, "What is 4 + 2?" Generally this type of question requires a lower-level thinking skills.
Single answers require recall or memorization.
cooperative learning (1)
A student centered learning approach in which heterogeneously grouped students work cooperatively to accomplish a shared task.
Strategies in which students work together to help one another learn by sharing perspectives and providing models of slightly advanced thinking.
deductive thinking (1)
A method of reasoning that requires students to take one or more general statements and then work their way down to a more specific conclusion. General to specific.
direct instruction (1)
A teaching method in which the teacher provides knowledge by directly presenting it to the students, generally in the format of lectures. A teacher-led instructional procedure that provides students with specific instructions on a task, teacher-led practice, independent practice, and immediate corrective feedback. Also referred to as explicit instruction.
divergent questions (1)
A type of question that requires critical thinking, since it allows for students to generate multiple answers to a defined question. An example is, "What is freedom?" Generally, this type of question requires higher-order thinking skills. Higher-level thinking questions; require students to analyze, evaluate, or synthesize a knowledge base and then project or predict different outcomes... the intent of these questions is to stimulate imaginative, creative, or inventive thought, or investigate "cause and effect" relationships
educational objective (1)
Goals developed by a teacher, based on state standards, which direct student learning. A clear goal indicating what the student should be able to know or do as a result of the training.
graphic organizer (1)
A visual tool for organizing knowledge. A diagram, chart, or graph used to organize information in a meaningful way
individual educational program (1)
A written document that is developed through a team effort for each public school child who is eligible for for special education and reviewed at least once a year.
individualized instruction (1)
Instructional strategies that are tailored to a student's specific learning style.
inductive thinking (1)
A method of reasoning that requires students to take specific facts and use them to develop a general conclusion. Specific to general.
instructional objective (1)
The educational goal of a lesson; specifically, what a teacher wants the students to know at the conclusion of a lesson.
learning styles (1)
The ways in which a student recognizes and processes information in the context of an educational setting. They are clearly delineated by the ways in which learners prefer to concentrate, store, and remember new and challenging information. They are visual, aural, verbal, physical, logical, social, and solitary.
A type of teacher-centered direct instruction where the teacher gives information while the students take notes.
lesson cycle model (1)
An instructional approach that includes the following components; focus, explanation, check for understanding, re-teach, guided practice, check for mastery, independent practice, enrichment, and closure. The components of the _____________ do not necessarily all occur in a single lesson, nor must a particular sequential order be followed.
mnemonic device (1)
Strategies that increase memory, especially for material that is not easily organized. Method of improving memory by associating new information with previously learned information.
modality preference (1)
The way a child prefers to learn. Students may be auditory, visual, kinesthetic, or mixed learners.
modeled reading (1)
A method wherein the teacher reads aloud a book which is above the students' reading level. Students may or may not have a copy of the text with which to follow along. The purpose of this reading is to demonstrate a skill or ability such as fluency or a fix-up strategy. A teacher reads modeling fluency , tone , rate.
multiple intelligences (1)
Howard Gardner of Harvard University defined seven distinct ____________ which relate to the learning environment. This is a theoretical framework for defining, understanding, assessing and developing learner's different intelligence factors. Through Gardner's research, one can easily see that teachers must create learning environments based on a variety of _____________. Seven defined types: linguistic, logical/math, musical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal
paired reading (1)
Students work in pairs, taking turns reading aloud a selection of text in order to build fluency skills. This is commonly called buddy reading. Student working in pairs (higher and lower); higher gain fluency from teaching; lower show improvement.
The process of designing the method of instruction used to teach a learning objective, and the way to assess the mastery of the objective.
prior knowledge (1)
Previously acquired knowledge that applies to a current lesson. Knowledge about or experience with a topic that enables connections for learning; a basis for comprehension or understanding.
problem-based learning (1)
A method of student-centered learning where the students work individually or cooperatively to solve a problem. Based on the Basic Concepts of Constructivism.
A tool which focuses on imitating the operation of a real-world process or system. A way of modeling a problem situation or event that would be too difficult or impractical to actually perform
Agreed-upon values used to measure the quality of student performance, instructional methods, curriculum, etc. Accepted level of achievement.
6 E Learning Cycle Model (1)
Instructional planning model: Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration, Evaluation, E-Search. Also learner/teacher relationship.
6 + 1 Lesson Model (1)
Instructional planning model: Focus, Objective, Direct Instruction, Guided Practice, Independent Practice & Assessment, Closure, Required Equipment & Materials. Research based lesson plan.
Growth occurs in stages - sensory motor (0-2), preoperational/experiential (2-7), concrete operational (7-11) formal operational (11+) formal and abstract operations.
Depth of Knowledge (DOK) (1)
Model of cognitive expectation. 1 = Recall and Reproduction, 2 = Skills and Concepts, 3 = Strategic Thinking, 4 = Extended Thinking. RIGOR.
Response to Intervention Model (1)
A three-tiered screening system that allows teachers to determine whether students are learning, using interventions as necessary
action research (5)
A reflective process of researching instructional methods based on student scores and the teacher's observations.
code of ethics (6)
The set of standards that apply to ethical decision-making within the field of education in the state of Florida.
comparative descriptive research (5)
Research that describes two or more groups of participants. Used to describe variables and to examine differences in variables in two or more groups that occur naturally in a setting.
correlation research (5)
Research that is used to describe the statistical association between two or more variables. The researcher observes or measures two or more naturally occurring variables to find the relationship between them. In this research, the researcher does not directly manipulate the variables.
experimental research (5)
Research in which an independent variable is manipulated and its effect on one or more dependent variables is measured. In a true experimental design, the researcher randomly assigns the participants who are being studied (also called the subjects) to two or more comparison groups. Sometimes the comparison groups are referred to as treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group receive some type of treatment, such as a special reading program.
individual needs assessment (5)
The process by which the educator identifies individual professional learning goals with primary emphasis on student learning needs by reviewing certification needs, classroom-level disaggregated student achievement, and behavioral data related to content area skills, school initiatives, the School Improvement Plan, and school and team goals. Educator Level Professional Development Standard.
principles of professional conduct (6)
The set of standards which outline the appropriate conduct, parameters, and repercussions for educators in the state of Florida.
professional learning communities (5)
A group of educators who act as reflective practitioners, analyzing student data in order to improve instruction methods. A group of educators that meets regularly, share expertise, and work collaboratively to improve teaching skills and the academic performance of students.
qualitative research (5)
Research that is based on unmeasurable qualities, such as teacher observation and examination of case studies.
quantitative research (5)
Research that is based on measurable data, such as how methods of instruction influence student test scores.
reflective practitioner (5)
An educator who reflects on instructional practices and self-evaluates the effectiveness of the instruction that is being provided. A teacher who is CONSTANTLY THINKING critically about teaching and the consequences of actions or inactions, all with the goal of being more effective with students.
School Advisory Council (SAC) (5)
An organization composed of the principal and a group of elected students, teachers, parents, and appointed community members, who develop the annual school improvement plan.
school needs assessment (5)
At least annually the school identifies professional learning needs through a classroom-by-classroom analysis of disaggregated student achievement data by content and skill areas, subgroups needing special assistance, and other school data.
simple descriptive research (5)
A method used when data are collected to describe persons, organizations, settings, or phenomena. For example, a researcher administers a survey to a random sample of teachers, in the state in order to describe the characteristics of the state's population of teachers.
site license (6)
The documentation that outlines the privacy rights of publishers; must be utilized to determine if software or materials can be distributed or printed.
Florida Abuse Hotline (6)
The communication tool utilized by educators to report suspected abuse.
Office of Professional Practice Services (6)
Department which provides follow-up and accountability for educators based on the Code of Ethics and Principles of Professional Conduct.
Term which focuses on the responsibility of an educator to alert public authorities of an arrest. A teacher must self-report within 48 hours of an arrest. Failure to report an arrest to the Florida Department of Education gives the state grounds for dismissal and certificate revocation regardless of the outcome of the arrest. Not needed for a minor traffic incident, such as a red-light violation.
acquisition-learning model (7)
States that there are two independent ways in which we develop our linguistic skills: acquisition and learning. Acquisition of language is a subconscious process and the learner is unaware of the process taking place. Once the new knowledge has been acquired, the learner is actually unaware of possessing such knowledge. This is analogous to the way in which children learn their native language. Secondly, they can learn it by intentionally studying vocabulary and grammar. These two methods work in tandem, and both are necessary for second-language acquisition.
affective filter hypothesis (7)
Emotional factors contribute greatly to a student's ability to learn a second language. According to this hypothesis, certain emotions, such as anxiety, self-doubt, and mere boredom interfere with the process of acquiring a second language. The hypothesis further states that the blockage can be reduced by sparking interest, providing low anxiety environments and bolstering the learner's self-esteem.
basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS) (7)
The vocabulary a student uses to carry on social conversations in low-stress environments such as the lunch room and the playground. The language ability needed for casual conversation. This usually applies to the interpersonal conversation skills of ELL students (i.e, playground language). It is everyday, straightforward communication skills that are helped by contextual supports such as gestures.
Words from different languages that have the same meaning and similar pronunciation and spelling.
cognitive academic language proficiency (CALPS) (7)
Refers to formal academic learning. This includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material. This level of language learning is essential for students to succeed in school. Students need time and support to become proficient in academic areas. This usually takes from five to seven years. Recent research has shown that if a child has no prior schooling or has no support in native language development, it may take seven to ten years for ELLs to catch up to their peers.
dual immersion programs (7)
A learning environment in which students who are learning English are placed together with students who are fluent in English, and English language learners receive specialized English language instruction. All students in this language program receive core/basic subject area instruction in English and another language.
Florida Consent Decree (7)
The document that addresses the civil rights of English language learners in the state of Florida, including their right to equal access to all education programs. It provides a structure that ensures the delivery of the comprehensible instruction to which English language learners are entitled.
home language survey (7)
The initial questionnaire that is given to all incoming Florida students. It asks questions about the primary language spoken in the home. If any question is answered "yes" the student is evaluated for English proficiency.
input hypothesis (7)
The belief that in order to challenge a student, the teacher needs to provide material that is slightly above the student's ability level an any language.
Jim Cummins (7)
Professor, University of Toronto/ is one of the world's leading authorities on bilingual education and second language acquisition. The acronyms "BICS" and "CALP" were first introduced by him in 1979-1980. He felt that students will gain fluency in Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) long before they demonstrate mastery of Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALPS). He felt that it took between five and seven years for students to master CALP. He believed that it was critical that students develop cognitive language in order to be successful in the classroom.
language acquisition model (7)
Four stages include: pre-production, early production, speech emergent, and intermediate fluency.
Lev Vygotsky (7)
An educational theorist known for his sociocultural theory that stresses the importance of social interaction on learning. 1896-1934; Russian developmental psychologist who emphasized the role of the social environment on cognitive development and proposed the idea of zones of proximal development
limited English proficiency (LEP) (7)
A term used to describe students who are not native English speakers and struggle with speaking, listening, reading, or writing in English.
An ESOL program where the students who are learning English are grouped with students who are fluent in English. Instruction is only in English and students are supported in basic core/subject areas through the use of ESOL strategies.
monitor hypothesis (7)
A hypothesis developed by Krashen that states if a student can learn the grammatical rules of a new language, he or she will be able to monitor written and spoken language in the future.
multicultural education (7)
An educational approach that focuses on five key areas: content integration, knowledge construction, equity pedagogy, prejudice reduction, and empowerment of school culture. An educational strategy that values diversity, promotes social justice, and provides equality to all students regardless of their race, ethnicity, gender, language, sexual orientation, religion, or ability.
native language (7)
Any language that is spoken regularly in the home.
natural order hypothesis (7)
States that second-language acquisition will follow a predictable pattern, and that certain grammatical structures will be acquired before others. Krashen contends that for this reason, educators should follow a specific order of grammatical instruction.
No Child Left Behind Act (7)
Legislation that supports the need for standards-based education reform. This is achieved by setting high standards and establishing measurable goals to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction. Federal law enacted in January 2002 that introduced new accountability measures for elementary and secondary schools in all states that wish to receive federal aid. States that non-native English speakers may not be tested in their native language. It also gave the individual school districts the right and responsibility of establishing programs that will teach these students English.
Concrete objects that are used to give meaning to a lesson. Use of these objects from the real world help deepen student understanding.
The practice of providing sufficient assistance to a student in order to facilitate learning. Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level.
sheltered English approach (7)
A program for English-language learners where the classes include only Limited English Proficiency students (LEP). Students may have the same home language or many different home languages. Instruction is entirely in English, and students receive special instruction in English while being supported in basic core/subject areas through the use of ESOL strategies.
sociocognitive approach (7)
A language acquisition theory that states that the different aspects of linguistic, cognitive, and social knowledge are interactive elements of total human development.
stages of second language acquisition (7)
The stages in which a second language is acquired. The four stages are pre-production, early production, speech emergent, and intermediate fluency.
Parents teachers, administrators, and community members who are invested in the academic success of the student.
Steven Krashen (7)
An educational activist who is famous for his contributions to the fields of second-language acquisition, bilingual education, and reading.
He introduced the theory of second language acquisition with five components: 1) Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis 2) Monitor Hypothesis 3) Natural Order Hypothesis 4) The Input Hypothesis 5) The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The practice of submerging an English-language learner in a mainstream classroom with no teacher support. It is a sink-or-swim approach to second-language acquisition that is no longer practiced in the state of Florida.
total physical response (TPR) (7)
A technique that pairs repetitive physical movement with vocabulary. A language-teaching method developed by James Asher. It is based on the coordination of language and physical movement. With this, instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond with whole-body actions
The idea that students from the same cultural background may share common knowledge with each other. This knowledge would be unknown to students from other cultures.
whole language approach (7)
A method of language instruction that is integrated and in which listening, speaking, reading, and writing are used along with other instructional strategies to build proficiency. It is student centered, context embedded, and literature or academic content-based.
Language acquisition Stage 1 Pre-production (7)
"Silent period" focusing on listening to English being spoken and will only respond non-verbally when questioned. Students have a vocabulary of approximately 500 words.
Language acquisition Stage 2 Early Production (7)
Still focused on receptive vocabulary, but will begin to utter short, one-to two-word answers to questions. Students have a vocabulary of approximately 1000 words. They may also use chunks of memorized phrases,
Language acquisition Stage 3 Speech Emergent (7)
The student has a vocabulary of up to 3,000 words, and he or she will ask simple questions and speak in simple sentences.
Language acquisition Stage 4 Intermediate Fluency (7)
The student has a vocabulary of approximately 6,000 words and will speak in more complex sentences when speaking and writing. Have mastered basic interpersonal communication skills. Capable of using higher-order thinking skills when using the new language.
Language acquisition Stage 5 Advanced Fluency (7)
Students at this stage are fluent in written and oral communication. Will have trouble with idioms. Students reach this level and master cognitive academic language in five to seven years.
A change in the way a student learns new material. Teachers use accommodated teaching methods when directed to do so by a student's individual educational program (IEP).
assistive technology (2)
Any assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices that are used to provided accommodations for students with disabilities.
Bandura, Albert (2)
A social learning theorist that believed learning occurs without direct consequences to one's actions. He proposed that learners observe modeled behavior and the consequences of the behavior, and then project the consequences on themselves.
Using superior strength or social stature to intimidate or influence the decisions of another person.
classroom management (2)
Planning and implementing methods to ensure that the learning environment of the classroom provides and effective venue for learning.
classroom presence (2)
Your motions, gestures, and location in a classroom that have an effect on teaching.
Bullying that occurs online, primarily on social media sites.
A collection of information that is organized and stored on a computer to provide and easy method for accessing data.
The unfair treatment of another individual based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or age.
The practice of ignoring an undesired behavior in the hopes that it disappears on its own. For instance, a child that makes noises to gain the teacher's attention may cease if the teacher ignores the behavior.
extrinsic motivation (2)
Motivation through the use of external rewards. Behaviorists contend that this motivation can be effectively used to manage student behavior.
high-traffic areas (2)
Paths that students often travel in the classroom, such as where they line up to leave the room and the path they take to frequently used supplies.
intellectual property (2)
A work that is personally created by an individual and can be copyrighted.
intrinsic motivation (2)
Motivation that comes from an internal source such as self-motivation, and the satisfaction that is created when personal goals are achieved.
A social learning theorist that established the model of self-regulated learning. This theory focuses on importance of practicing modeled behavior by forecasting the rewarding consequences of positive behaviors and the negative consequences of undesirable behaviors.
A change in the curriculum's learning requirements due to a student's inability to master the required state standards.
negative reinforcement (2)
A method of influencing behavior through removing an adverse stimulant in order to strengthen a behavior. For example, a parent may stop complaining about a messy room if the child begins to clean his or her room. The lack of nagging is the removal of the stimulant as a result of the room remaining clean.
Pavlov, Ivan (2)
A Nobel Prize-winning Russian psychologist known for his work in classical conditioning: the relationship between behavior and direct rewards. His work greatly influenced behaviorism.
positive reinforcement (2)
Anything that is added in order to cause an increase in a behavior. This can be a tangible reward or verbal praise. Scolding be an example of this if receiving attention enforces an undesired behavior.
Premack principle (2)
Pairs undesirable behaviors with desirable acts, and is employed frequently to induce students to engage in the former. An example is telling students they can go outside to play kickball, a desired outcome, after cleaning the art station, and undesirable task.
Punishment decreases the likelihood a behavior is repeated, provided it is not reinforcing in some way, such as giving a violator status with peers.
Skinner, B. F. (2)
An American psychologist and behaviorist known for his theory of operant conditioning, which states that a behavior is controlled by the consequences that follows it.
Thorndike, E. L. (2)
A behavioral theorist who focused on the law of effect and believed that behaviors which result in favorable consequences are likely to be repeated and that behaviors which result in unfavorable consequences are not likely to be repeated.
The times of switching from one classroom activity to another.
wait time (2)
The time between when a teacher asks a question then calls on a student to answer.
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