Excelsior U.S. History Unit 5 (Ch. 17)

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George Marshall
The Army Chief of Staff General who pushed for the formation of the Women's Auxiliary Army Corp (WAAC).
Women's Auxiliary Army Corp (WAAC)
Created because the military's work force needs were so great that General Marshall pushed for the use of women as nurses and radio operators as well as other non-combat jobs. Women took jobs in a wide variety of fields and professions traditionally held by men as a result of the war.
A. Philip Randolph
President and founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and the most respected African-American labor leader. He organized the country's first all-black trade union. As the war continued, more African-Americans were given job opportunities across the country.
Manhattan Project
In intensive research program based at Columbia University to develop an atomic bomb as quickly as possible.
Office of Price Administration (OPA)
Fought inflation by freezing prices on most goods. They also raised income tax rates and extended it to millions of people who had never paid it before. Thus leaving workers with less money to spend. They also encouraged Americans to use their extra cash to buy war bonds.
War Production Board (WPB)
Decided which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production and allocated raw materials to key industries.
rationing
establishing fixed allotments of goods deemed essential for the military.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
The Supreme Commander of U.S. forces in Europe and the General who commanded the invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa, Operation Torch.
D-Day
June 6, 1944, the first day of the Allied invasion in Nazi-occupied Europe, in Normandy, France, called Operation Overlord. This is still the largest land, sea, and air military operation in history.
Omar Bradley
The American General who unleashed a massive air and land bombardment against the enemy at St. Lo providing a gap for General Patton to advance.
George Patton
The American General who commanded the Third Army who liberated the French capital, Paris from German occupation.
Battle of the Bulge
The last ditch offensive by the Germans which occurred 60 miles into Allied territory, which created a bulge in the lines giving the battle its name.
V-E Day
May 8, 1945~ Victory in Europe Day! The day that General Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich.
Harry S. Truman
Vice-President during WWII who became the 33rd President when President Roosevelt died of a stroke. He decided to use the atomic bomb against Japan in order to bring a swift end to the war and save American lives.
Douglas MacArthur
The American General in command of the Allied forces in the Pacific Islands. He led the troops into battle at Iwo Jima and other islands.
Chester Nimitz
The American Admiral in command of the U.S. naval forces in the Pacific.
Battle of Midway
A turning point in the Pacific War after which, the allied forces began "island hopping".
kamikaze
Japanese suicide-plane whereby the pilots would crash their bomb-laden planes into Allied ships.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
The lead American scientist in the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb.
Hiroshima
The first city in Japan to have an atomic bomb (code named Little Boy) released on it on August 6, 1945.
Nagasaki
The second Japanese city to have an atomic bomb (code named Fat Man) released on it on August 9, 1945.
Nuremberg trials
The trials held in the southern German town of Nuremberg to try 24 surviving Nazi leaders for crimes against humanity. These trials emphasized that a human being still has to be responsible for their actions even if a war is going on.
GI Bill of Rights
In order to assist returning veterans in their transition to civilian life, this was created to provide education and training. In fact, this gave returning soldiers money to go to college if they wanted to.
James Farmer
Civil rights leader who founded an interracial organization called the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to confront urban segregation in the North.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
The organization created by James Farmer to confront urban segregation in the North.
Internment
The term used by America during WWII to confine Japanese Americans in prison camps as a result of fear and prejudice. President Truman made the call to intern the Japanese Americans mostly as a result of a strong anti-Japanese sentiment in the West after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Most of those interned came from the West Coast and were Nisei (Japanese people born in this country of parents who emigrated from Japan).
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
The group of people who pushed for reparations after the war was over for those Americans who had been forced into the U.S. prison camps.
Zoot-Suit Riots
A series of riots in Los Angeles during WWII between the white military members and the local Latino youth that wore the zoot-suits popular during that time period as a result of racial tensions increasing.
Battle of Stalingrad
The first great turning point for the Allies. The Germans had invaded Russia in June 1941, and tried to take control of Stalingrad (a major industrial center) in August of 1942. Once winter set in, Russia mounted a huge counterattack. They surrounded the city and cut off the German's supplies. However, Hitler refused to surrender and winter got worse.

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